The Relationship Between Motivation, Anxiety, and English Proficiency at Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum Jakarta

This is my full article for the first UICELL seminar few years ago.

The Relationship Between Motivation, Anxiety, and English Proficiency at Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum Jakarta

Efi Dyah Indrawati


Ministry of Finance RI

The study analyses motivation and anxiety in relation to the English proficiency of trainees of English at Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum (PKU) Jakarta. Based on a survey consisting of AMTB questionnaire, FLCAS questionnaire, and the result of English proficiency test, the findings revealed that there were a high level of motivation and moderately high level of anxiety in learning English among PKU trainees, as well as an intermediate level of English proficiency. Also, motivation was more significant than anxiety in influencing English proficiency, but both variables were found to have not a very strong relationship with it, which is only 0.291 to affect on English proficiency. Therefore, based on goodness of fit statistics, there should be variables other than motivation and anxiety to be put in the regression model. Finally, the study puts several suggestion and recommendations for teachers, training center, and future researchers in the area.

Keywords: motivation, anxiety, English proficiency, Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum

Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat motivasi dan tingkat kecemasan, serta hubungan antara motivasi, kecemasan, dan English Proficiency pada peserta diklat bahasa Inggris di Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum Kementerian Keuangan RI di Jakarta. Dengan survei menggunakan kuesioner motivasi AMTB, kuesioner kecemasan FLCAS, serta nilai TOEFL test, diperoleh hasil bahwa peserta diklat bahasa Inggris PKU memiliki tingkat motivasi tinggi dan tingkat kecemasan cukup tinggi. Motivasi dan kecemasan memiliki korelasi positif dengan English proficiency. Selain itu motivasi memiliki pengaruh yang lebih signifikan terhadap English proficiency, meskipun hubungan dua variabel lemah pada taraf signifikansi 0.291. Dari sini disimpulkan bahwa harus ada variable-variabel lain yang dapat mempengaruhi English proficiency untuk ditambahkan dalam model regresi. Pada akhir penelitian diberikan beberapa rekomendasi bagi para pengajar bahasa Inggris, Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum, serta peneliti yang akan melakukan studi serupa.


There have been many linguists and psychologists tried to associate the success of foreign and second language learning with affective factors, among which are motivation and anxiety as important predictors of foreign language performance. Many studies have generated context-specific findings on the identification and formulation of foreign language motivation and anxiety, and the assessment of their impact on the learning experience (Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope; Gardner, Day & MacIntyre; MacIntyre & Gardner; Wei). However, little empirical study is available to understand motivation and anxiety in English learning in Indonesia, a foreign language setting. Indonesian authors such as Laturiuw and Marlina, only suggested the study on motivation among different groups of EFL learners in Indonesia. Yet, no formal study studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between motivation, anxiety, and English proficiency among  adult learners serving as government officials. Therefore, this study will endeavor to provide empirical evidence on affective studies by examining the motivation  and  anxiety of  Indonesian learners   of   English, in particular Ministry of Finance (MOF) officials learning at Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum (PKU) MOF,   and  consider  how   the   two  factors  correlate to their proficiency in English. PKU itself is an echelon II unit under Finance Education and Training Agency MOF that provides many general trainings except for areas of taxation, budgetary, customs and excise, and state assets. As English is getting more emphasized in MOF as the international means of communication and knowledge distribution, every year PKU delivers more and more English courses for MOF officials. It is then very important to know PKU trainees’ affective factors to provide some contributions both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, this can support the existing theories on motivation and anxiety and provide one empirical evidence for Indonesian EFL setting, specifically in a government training center. Practically, this study is expected to contribute to the improvement of English teaching at PKU by taking into account affective factors, i.e. motivation and anxiety, to minimize participants’ problems in learning English and to enhance language-learning effectiveness in PKU classroom teachings.

Therefore the research questions are as follows:

  1. What is the level of motivation and anxiety of PKU trainees in learning English?
  2. What is the relationship between PKU trainees’ motivation and their English proficiency?
  3. What is the the relationship between PKU trainees’ anxiety and their English proficiency?
  4. What is the relationship between PKU trainees’ motivation and anxiety  towards their English proficiency?

And the verbal hypotheses for research questions are:

Research Question No. 2

H1.1 =   There is a relationship between motivation  and English Proficiency.

H0.1 =   There is no relationship between motivation and English Proficiency.

Research Question No.3

H1.2 =   There is a relationship between anxiety and English Proficiency.

H0.2 =   There is no relationship between anxiety and English Proficiency.

Research Question No.4

H1.3 =  There is a relationship between motivation and anxiety towards English Proficiency.

H0.3 =   There is no relationship between motivation and anxiety towards English Proficiency.


Research Design

The research is quantitative using a cross-sectional approach, whereas subjects’ characteristics were studied once before the relationship had been determined. To investigate the relationship between three variables, a correlational design is used. The researcher employed descriptive analysis to answer research question number 1 and an  inferential  analysis using  correlational technique  to  answer research question number 2, 3, and 4.


  1. English Proficiency is a prediction of someone’s ability or skill to perform in English  language measured by a performance test consisting  of  standardized  multiple-choice  items  on  grammar,  vocabulary,  reading  comprehension,  and aural  comprehension (Brown).
  2. Motivation is the extent to which an individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity, subsumed in three components: motivational intensity, desire to learn the language, and an attitude towards the act of learning the language (Gardner). In addition, motivation is also manifested through integrativeness, attitudes towards the learning situation, language anxiety, and attributes like instrumental orientation and family encouragement.
  3. Anxiety is the feeling of uneasiness, worry, nervousness and apprehension experienced by non-native speakers when using a foreign language, including speaking, listening, and learning. It comprises three main categories: communication apprehension, test anxiety,  and fear of negative evaluation. (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope)


  1. Background Questionnaire

The background questionnaire consists of ten questions on the subject’s name, age, gender, work unit , length of English learning, English test taken, experience in an English-speaking country, and their feeling about an English class. The last two questions are  open-ended ones to obtain personal motivation and anxiety of each trainee in learning English.

  •  Motivation Questionnaire

The motivation questionnaire is taken from Gardner’s Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) version 2004, with 104 items for the 6-point Likert Scales. The researcher changes the word ‘Japan’ into ‘Indonesia’ , “school” into “training/ course”, “teacher” to “trainer”, and ‘’job to “position” on several items to make the items explicitly represent characteristics of government training course setting. The researcher also changes the original  word “parents” to “family” to represent better choice for adult respondents. The Cronbach’s Alpha of AMTB is 0,926 (Excellent), therefore the instrument is valid for the research.

  • Anxiety Questionnaire

The anxiety questionaire is adapted from the English version of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) designed by Horwitz  in 1986, consisting of 33 items. The researcher changed “Foreign Language” into ‘English and also changed the original 5-point Likert Scale into a 6-point Likert Scale (ranging from ‘Strongly Disagree’ to “Strongly Agree’) to avoid clustered responses in the middle  of  the  scale and to provide more  valuable  information for statistical analysis.

There are eight items for communication anxiety (1, 9, 14, 18, 24, 27, 29, 32), nine items for fear of negative evaluation (3, 7, 13, 15, 20, 23, 25, 31, 33) and five items for test anxiety (2, 8, 10, 19, 21).  The  remaining eleven  items  are  put  in a  group  named as  anxiety of English classes. The result of reliability statitics Cronbach’s Alpha of FLCAS is 0,824 (Good); therefore, the instrument used is valid for the research

  •  Proficiency Test

The proficiency test used is a TOEFL (PBT) developed by PKU for English placement test. It consists of three sections: Listening, Structure and Written Expression, and Reading Comprehension, with a total items of 140. The English Proficiency score in this study is indicated by the TOEFL score reported as the result of English Placement Test year 2015.

Setting and Participants

The study is conducted in 2016 at Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan (Pusdiklat) Keuangan Umum or PKU located in Pancoran, South Jakarta – Indonesia. A total sample of 80 PKU trainees participated in the study and only 48 responses are found usable for data analysis.

Data Collection Method(s) and Analysis

The study uses a decriptive analysis to describe the total view of the information or data from answers no. 1 through 10 of the background questionnaire, which includes frequencies and percentages. The data analysis uses MS.Excel for statistical calculation.

From the background questionnaire no. 9 and 10, the researcher enlists all answers and categorizes them based on the sameness of the content, then fed the data into MS-Excel. The result was then summarized in a table and presented in a pie chart.

To score the Likert-Scales items on the motivation questionniare/ATMB, the researcher uses the guideline as seen on Appendix 4. For the negatively worded items, the scoring must be reversed in order to make the instrument reflect the motivation in descending order. A high score (maximum = 624) indicates a high motivation in learning English, and a low score (minimum = 104) indiates a low motivation in learning English.

To score the anxiety questionnaire or the FLCAS, the researcher uses the guideline from table 5. Responses ranged from 6 (Strongly Agree) to 1 (Strongly Disagree), with a minimum score of 66 meaning a very low anxiety and maximum of 198 meaning very high anxiety.

The most items (22 items) in the FLCAS are negatively worded, and they are scored as indicated by the table above. Items number 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 15, 18, 22, 24, 28, and 32 (which are positively worded) are inversely scored to make the instrument reflect the degree of anxiety in ascending order.

The score for English proficiency test is taken from the result of English placement test using a paper-based TOEFL test. The PBT scores, ranging between 310 to 677, is based on three subscores: Listening (31-68), Structure (31-68), and Reading (31-67), and they define PKU trainees’ level of proficiency.

After three scores for motivation, anxiety, and TOEFL were obtained, the data were illustrated to enable the calculation for regression, which is performed by SPSS 23. But before conducting the hypothetical testing, the researcher had completed the prerequisite testings, which include tests on normality, homogeneity, and linearity. The results indicated that all variables are normally distributed, the model equation is linier (i.e. variables are appropriate), and there is no heteroscedascity of the variances in the regression model (i.e. the population sample is homogenous).



From the background questionnaire, it was shown that participants’ age varied from 20 to 40 years old, with male participants (86%) outnumbered female (14%) in the sample. They came from different units in the MOF: Setjen (12), DJPK (3) , DJP (22) , DJBC (7) , DJPPR (4), DJKN (12), Itjen (2), BKF (6), BPPK (12). They have various length of previous study with English but the majority (43%) have more than 10 years of learning English. Participants also show different background of acquaintance with an English speaking country but the biggest portion (65%) mentioned they have never visited any English speaking countries. Dealing with question on their feeling about English class (Q8), all participants (100%) likes their class. The major reason by 32 participants says that English class improves English knowledge and ability. The remaining answers given are participants have personal drives and love for learning, English class is fun, and they need certain environment to learn English. The answers to Q9 on what motivates trainee in learning English (open-ended question) vary greatly, but the top three answers are  they want to study abroad (34 participants), they want to speak English fluently (29 participants), and English is an international language for global communication (27 participants). The result of Q10 indicates that 46 participants admitted that they did not have anything to worry or scare in learning English. But, others mentioned their anxiety such as speaking (52), limited Grammar (34), limited Vocabulary (27), Listening (16), making mistakes (9), English teacher (7) English tests/exam (7), and Writing (5). Some other mentioned that English is very difficult/complex to learn (10), and that they are shy/not confident (5).

Dealing with the English proficiency score, the participants demonstrate intermediate to middle-intermediate-range of proficiency. In other words, the average level of PKU English trainees’ proficiency for this study is middle intermediate.

The finding for research Research Question no.1 can be seen from the following Figure 1:

Figure1: Descriptive Statistics of AMTB and FLCAS

Descriptive Statistics
 NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. DeviationVariance
EFL Anxiety4889153116,2113,905193,360
EFL Motivation48382551469,3536,1651307,893
Valid N (listwise)48     

As shown in the above figure, the mean score of participant’s level of anxiety is 116,21. Given that the mean scores of the minimum and the maximum levels of the anxiety experienced by the participants are 89 and 153, it can be said that the participants in this study have moderately high language learning anxiety. As also evident in the table, the mean score of participants’ motivation to learn English is 469,35, their maximum level is 551 and their minimum level is 382. It can be concluded that participants’ motivation is high.

The three-highest ranks for AMTB items, which means above 5 (indicating a high level of attitudes) are question no. 8 (mean=6), no. 15 and no. 18 (mean=5.6), and no. 35, 76, and 72 (mean=5.5).

It is also indicated that the overall mean for each item on AMTB was 4,5 (SD = 1), which suggest that participants have  a relatively high level of motivation. This result matches with the subjects’ response on the open-ended question in the background questionnaire, which reveals that 100% of the participants like English class and the desire to study or continue their education abroad as the most given motives in learning English.

Descriptive statistics for FLCAS items showed that the participants demonstrated a wide range of anxiety levels, ranging from 2.4 to 5.1 (maximum score per item = 6). The ranks for the mean score for anxiety from the highest to the lowest are question number 5, 27, 7, 22, 2, 21, 1, 9, 23, 13, 17, 26, 32, 33, 11, 24, 29, 15, 28, 10, 14, 30, 25, 31, 4, 12, 19, 3, 6, 18, 20, and 16.

Top five anxiety statements, which all had mean values exceeding 4, were from questions 5 (mean=5.1, SD=0.9) and no.27 (mean=4.4, SD=1) and no 2, 7, 23 (mean=4.1 SD=1).  These items seemed to reflect a generally negative and passive attitude toward English class.

The data also shows that the overall mean for each anxiety items was 3,5 (SD =1,2), which indicates that participants were in moderate anxiety level. This finding explains the result of the open-ended question from the background questionnaire that 13 participants (27%) do not have any worry in English class, while the rest indicated an anxiety, especially in three biggest reasons: speaking (35%), limited grammar (27%), and fear of making mistakes (15%). That means students showed anxiety, but not very high.

The next Figure 2 shows the output of the SPSS23 program to get the regression model to predict English proficiency through motivation variable (Question No.2)

Figure 2: Motivation and English Proficiency (Partial)

Model Summary
ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate
a. Predictors: (Constant), EFL Motivation
  ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.
BStd. ErrorBeta
1(Constant)345,35444,965 7,681,000
EFL Motivation,273,095,3922,863,006
a. Dependent Variable: EFL Proficiency

The estimated model of regression would be Y = 345,354 + 0,273X1. This means that 1% increase of motivation will increase English proficiency as high as 27%.

The following Figure 3 is the output of the SPSS23 program to obtain the regression model to predict English proficiency through anxiety variable (Research Question no.3)

Figure 3: Anxiety and English Proficiency (Partial)

ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.
BStd. ErrorBeta
1(Constant)431,68930,517 14,146,000
EFL Anxiety,361,261,2021,387,172
a. Dependent Variable: EFL Proficiency

The estimated model would be Y = 431,689 + 0,361 X2. This means that 1% increase of anxiety will increase English proficiency as high as 36%.

Figure 4 we the extent of the relationship between motivation and anxiety simultaneously towars English proficiency, we need to see the following result.

Figure 4: Motivation, Anxiety and English Proficiency (Simultaneous)

Model Summary
ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate
a. Predictors: (Constant), Anxiety Score, Motivation Score
ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.
BStd. ErrorBeta
1(Constant)196,60860,163 3,268,002
Motivation Score,398,092,5744,303,000
Anxiety Score,774,240,4303,221,002
a. Dependent Variable: TOEFL Score

For the hypothetical testing, the estimation equation model resulted from SPSS23 is as follow:  Y = 196.608 + 0.5398X1  0,774X2.

The equation means that motivation (X1) and anxiety (X2) altogether are related to English proficiency (Y), in which the correlation of both are positive. That means when motivation is raised by 1% therefore it will increase proficiency score by 39% and if anxiety is raised by 1%, it will increase proficiency score by 77%. The equation demonstrates that anxiety contributes a greater percentage to proficiency than motivation does.

The value of coefficient determination (R-squared) is 0,321, which means that motivation (X1) and anxiety (X2) variables can explain proficiency variable (Y) in 32%, while the other 68% are explained with different variables. The adjusted R-squared is smaller, indicated by a value of 0,291, meaning that other variables needs to be included in the model.

The coefficient is positive for motivation (0,574), which means there is a positive relationship between motivation and proficiency. For anxiety, there is also a significant positive correlation, indicated by a parameter of 0,430. These are in line with the first hypotheses that motivation will have a positive influence to proficiency. In addition, a rise in anxiety will increase proficiency, and this is in line with the second hypothesis that there is a relationship between anxiety and proficiency. Therefore, H null is rejected.

To view the significance of variables, motivation variable (X1) is more significant than anxiety (X2). The result shows that motivation and anxiety altogether have influence to English proficiency; therefore, the third hypothesis is accepted.


The motivation level as shown by the motivation questionnaire was generally high, which was supported by students’ feeling in the open-ended question in the background questionnaire saying that they like English classes for three major reasons: “I need English to study abroad”, “I want to speak English fluently,” and “English is an international language for global communication”. This is also supported by the most-higly-rated answer to Q8 in the AMTB saying that Studying English is important because it will allow me to be more at ease with people who speak English. This supports many previous studies on motivation as one predictor in the success of EFL learning, although this study doesn’t attempt to focus on which type of motivation that plays role in English learning success.  

     But, seeing the top three major reasons from the background questionnaire, it can be said that PKU trainees were both instrumentally and integratively motivated. Instrumental motives that they wanted to study abroad and that English is an international language for global communication were more frequently given than the motive of being able to speak English fluently. From AMTB, the reponses are supported by top answered questions saying form Orientation Construct that Studying English is important because I will need it for my career and Studying English is important because it  will make me more educated.  It can indicate that PKU trainees learn English for more instrumental reasons, especially more reasons such as to travel abroad, to gain scholarship abroad, to enjoy entertainment, to advance in their career, and to improve knowledge were also given in their response to background questionnaire. The finding corresponds to the observation made by Dornyei that: “Instrumental motivation, intellectual, and sociocultural motives, and/or other motivational factors … may acquire a special importance, although affective factors that are normally part of integrative motivation in SLA contexts do play a role in FL … that differs from those emerging in SLA contexts“ (Dornyei, 1994). But the researcher views the finding does not necessarily invalidate Gardner’s integrative-instrumental model. As Dornyei noted: “Instrumentality and especially integrativeness are broad tendencies on subsystems rather than straightforward universals, comprising context-specific clusters of loosely related components.

It is also not surprising that the analysis showed a positive relationship between motivation and English proficiency. That validates Gardner et al. (1992) previous assumption that motivation can result in better learning achievement.

The finding also shows a significant positive relationship between anxiety and English proficiency, which is unlike other studies that indicate a negative coefficient for anxiety. The anxiety level as shown in this study is inconsistent with that of Wei (2007), who found a negative relationship and moderate level of anxiety among Chinese students.  The background questionnaire that reveals speaking as the main factor to make trainees anxious is in accordance with what Horwitz et al. claim that many learners experience anxiety “in response to at least some aspects of foreign Language learning.” What is worth noting in the finding is the general negative attitude toward English classes is accompanied by some confidence or positive attitude, as shown by the top-five-rated anxiety statements from FLCAS: (Q5) It wouldn’t bother me at all to take more English classes, (Q27) I get nervous when I’m speaking in my English class, (Q2) I don’t worry about making mistakes in English classes, (Q7) I keep thinking that the other trainees are better than me, and (Q23) I always feel that the other trainees speak Englsih better than me. Since trainees’ motivation score is previously reported high, it is understandable that PKU trainess have moderate anxiety.

    This finding of trainees’ anxiety is noteworthy since involvement in language learning process in a classroom is very important to the learning effectiveness in foreign language settings. The response to FLCAS items by the participants in this study probably indicates that anxious trainees are common in English classrooms even at a governmental training center, where the trainees are adult people. But, the generally negative attitude towards English classes could affect the effort in English learning. Phillips (1992) stated: “In today’s proficiency oriented classroom, teachers must continue to view foreign language anxiety as a serious problem to encourage students to further their education in foreign languages. The more desire trainees feel to learn about the target language and culture, the more effort they should take in their English learning. Therefore it’s crucial to make PKU trainees less anxious in the classroom. This will be task of PKU to organize English trainings with encouraging situations to promote trainees’ learning. Trainers also need to be enriched with various delivery methods and skills that will make classrooms not threatening but motivating and engaging.

      The findings also prove that there was relationship between anxiety and English proficiency, between anxiety and English proficiency, and also both motivation and anxiety towards English proficiency simultaneously, although the extent of influence was not very strong.  This is consistent with Gardner’s (1988) notion that (integratively) motivated students are less anxious in second language context. This is also consistent with Wei’s study that anxiety and motivation overall were not significantly correlated, and integrative motivation was the predictor of low anxiety.  In addition, it also agrees with Yan’s (1988), which reported that the strength of student motivation and anxiety were negatively correlated and lack of motivation could result in anxious behavior.

It is also shown how motivation was more significant with English proficiency than anxiety, which can be concluded that the more motivated the students were, the more effective their learning was, as indicated by a higher score on the proficiency test. Dealing with anxiety variable that is not significant in the result, that means this study is still in favor of the theory. Both motivation and anxiety are related to English proficiency, and the empirical findings show the results indicate a positive correlation.

The study also shows that both motivation and anxiety altogether can only explain English proficiency in 29% which means that other variables has more influence of 71% than those two affective factors. This is in line with Gardner’ model that motivation and anxiety are just a part of learner’s differences. Other learner factors, such as intelligence or personality, could be considered taken into account for further research to provide an empirical proof.

       In addition, motivation by itself is a complex construct; effort (motivational intensity), cognitions (desire), affect (attitude), and goal are just the notion by Gardner’s model, further studies could consider using more attributes in motivation or using revised or developed models. Also, further studies with consideration of a wide range of factors such as curriculum design, language planning, and other sociocultural issues are needed to explore fully how motivation and anxiety are related to language proficiency. It is also need to be noted that this study is context-specific, as the sample is taken from one governmental training center. Therefore, the limitation of participants to only one governmental institution do not allow one to conclude that in general to all government officials in Indonesia. It would be more desirable for further studies to include a larger sample with more diverse backgrounds, so that the findings will be more generalizable. And lastly, further studies with broader qualitative and a quantitative perspectives should be undertaken in order to reach better results regarding the social-psychological aspects of foreign language learning in Indonesian goverment training center.


The followings are some important conclusions made:

  1. This study is intended to understand the level of motivation and the level of anxiety PKU trainees in learning English, as well as the correlation between motivation and English proficiency, between anxiety and English proficiency, and the relationship between learner’s motivation and anxiety towards their English proficiency. Overall, the results indicated a high motivation level and a moderate anxiety level, both are positively correlated with the participant’s English proficiency.
  2. There is a positive relationship between motivation and English proficiency, between anxiety and English proficiency, and simultaneously between motivation and anxiety towards English proficiency. That means every changes in the affective factors will give influence to English proficiency.
  3. The analysis suggested that motivation was found to be more significant than anxiety in influencing English proficiency. However, the two variables were found to have weak relationship with English proficiency, which suggested that variables other than motivation and anxiety have bigger influence on English proficiency, which need to be investigated in further studies.
  4. Foreign language learning is a complex process. Affective factors are interrelated and not the only factors that influence English proficiency or language learning success, which may be in part a result of classroom environments. Classrooms should be places where motivation can be encouraged and anxiety should be minimized, with trainers who are capable of promoting good learning environment for trainees.

The further recommendations are as the followings:

  1. For Trainers

English teaching practice should be made into a more motivating experience. Classroom activities must be carefully developed to increase trainees’ confidence, self-esteem, and level of participation. Trainers must develop methods and strategies that maintain trainees’ interest and commitment to improve language proficiency.

  • For PKU Training Center

The implementation of language requirements (concerning some English trainings with certain minimum score for passing grade, such as in the General English course) need to be re-evaluated more thoroughly and carefully on the actual effect on the learning process. In other words, implementing rules must take into account affective factors to promote learning success, so that trainees will become less anxious, more confident, and more capable learners.

  • For Researchers

More research on affective factors need to be conducted by:

  • including other learner factors, such as intelligence and personality
  • using larger sample and more diverse backgrounds
  • using broader qualitative and quantitative perspective, such as phenomenological approach and factor analysis.



Efi Dyah Indrawati is a civil servant in Finance Education and Training Agency of Ministry of Finance (FETA – MoF) of Indonesia, with her current position as a senior trainer at Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum (PKU) or General Finance Education and Training Center in Pancoran – Jakarta. She is also a lecturer at the State Finance Polytechnic (PKN) STAN in Jakarta.

As a senior trainer, her duties are designing training programs, formulating curriculum, performing evaluation and assessments, and lecturing at FETA’s trainings particularly in the field of training management, English communication, and human resource management. As PKN STAN lecturer, her responsibilities are delivering lectures and seminars, developing course materials, assessing students course works, setting and checking examinations, and supporting advisory role for Diploma I and Diploma III students.


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Table 1

Instrumentation for Motivation

VariableIndicatorsItem NumberTotal Item
Positively WordedNegatively Worded
Attitude/Motivation Interest in Foreign Languages1, 21, 42, 65, 8512, 32, 55, 76, 9510
Family Encouragement2, 22, 43, 48, 57, 66, 86, 103N/A8
Motivational Intensity13, 33, 56, 77, 963, 23, 44, 67, 8710
English Class Anxiety16, 36, 60, 80, 984, 24, 45, 68, 8810
English Teacher Evaluation5, 25, 46, 69, 8914, 34, 58, 78, 9710
Attitudes toward Learning English6, 26, 47, 70, 9018, 38, 62, 82, 10010
Attitudes toward English-speaking people7, 27, 40, 53, 49, 71, 91, 104N/A8
Integrative Orientation8, 28, 50, 72N/A4
 Desire to Learn English9, 29, 51, 73, 9217, 37, 61, 81, 9910
English Course Evaluation20, 41, 64, 84, 10210, 30, 52, 74, 9310
English Use Anxiety11, 31, 54, 75, 9419, 39, 63, 83, 101 10
Instrumental Orientation15, 35, 59, 79N/A4


Table 2

Instrumentation for Anxiety

VariableIndicatorsItem NumberTotal Item
Positively WordedNegatively Worded
AnxietyCommunication Anxiety14, 18, 24, 321, 9, 27, 298
Fear of Negative Evaluation25, 333, 7, 13, 15, 20, 23, 319
Test Anxiety2, 810, 19, 215
Anxiety of English Classes5, 11, 22, 284, 6, 12, 16, 17, 26, 3011


Table 3

Instrumentation for English Proficiency

VariableIndicatorsSub-IndicatorItem No.Total Item
English ProficiencyListeningShort ConversationLonger ConversationLectures/Talks  1-3031-3839-5050
Structure and written expressionCompleting SentencesError Identification  1-1516-4040
ReadingQuestions on reading  1-5050


Table 4

Scoring Guidance for 6-Likert-Scale AMTB (positively worded)

Strongly disagree1
Moderately Disagree2
Slightly Disagree3
Slightly Agree4
Moderately Agree5
Strongly Agree6


Table 5

Scoring Guidance for 6-Likert-Scale FLCAS

Strongly disagree1
Moderately Disagree2
Slightly Disagree3
Slightly Agree4
Moderately Agree5
Strongly Agree6

The STI–SEACEN Webinar on Cybersecurity of Remote Working and Cybersecurity Risk Supervision

It was so insightful session I had with STI IMF and SEACEN. I also got to reconnect with my IMF buddies from 4 year-ago session I had at Fullerton Hotel Singapore. I kinda wanna share what I got from the webinar. By the way, the speakers are Tamas Gaidosch from IMF and Tan Yeow Seng from MAS. Listening two hours to something relevant to you is never boring, especially you are also engaged in their survey and Q&A along the session. This is the second session of IMF session that I can catch quite clearly, as I joined that from my office. OK guys, just read the next…

Cybersecurity of Remote Work During the Pandemic

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many financial sector firms and authorities have moved to teleworking arrangements that are based on remote access to systems and data that may be critical. Given the widespread shift to working remotely for a prolonged time and the inevitable vulnerabilities in this process, new and more cyberattacks are expected to emerge. Firms should consider implementing strong remote access security controls if they have not already done so. Similarly, if not already in place, regulatory
authorities should consider issuing additional guidance, based on international technical standards and good practice.


Most financial sector firms have already been using remote access facilities, however, installed capacities may not have been enough to support most of the workforce simultaneously, which increases potential security risks. IT departments are under pressure to upgrade capacities fast and this results in changing or replacing existing systems with little time to do thorough security tests. Vulnerabilities in the remote access infrastructure and access protocols may remain undetected and can be exploited in cyber attacks.

Cloud technologies are increasingly implemented and used to quickly deal with higher capacity needs. Under time and resource pressures, inherent security risks coming with the usage of cloud services might not have been properly assessed and existing controls might not be fully effective in the new environments. This risk is also present using cloud service providers that are generally regarded as providing secure infrastructure, because user organizations themselves are always responsible for certain aspects of cloud security (such as setting up proper access controls).

Employees unfamiliar with working remotely and under stress caused by the pandemic, can become easy targets of phishing and social engineering attacks. Over the past few weeks there has been an increase in cyberattacks designed to trigger a response by exploiting our natural sensitivity to COVID-19 related information. Examples include clicking malicious links and downloading malware infected attachments or applications.

Insecure endpoints and weak remote access authentication are two main elements that increase the risk of such attacks succeeding. Examples of insecure endpoints are notebooks or other mobile devices without the latest security patches installed. Password based authentication without a second factor is considered weak in the context of remote access. However, enforcing strong password requirements remain an important issue to be addressed.

Functions dealing with critical systems and data that are normally not allowed to be conducted off premises, for example treasury operations, might need to be carried out remotely during the pandemic. Existing controls might not be enough to protect critical functions, system and data.

Technical and policy measures that focus on information security are key in mitigating the cybersecurity risks of remote access. While not specific to remote access, strict information security policies (including data access control and extensive logging and monitoring policies) underpin remote access security. Some firms have had weaknesses in the implementation of such policies and are therefore more likely to be successfully attacked during the pandemic.


Authorities and firms should quickly and effectively implement good practices and international technical standards applicable for secure remote working, if these were not already in place. While some existing technical standards specifically address controls for remote working (e.g. NIST 800-46 Rev 2 or BSI ITGrundschutz Compendium), others describe generic controls that are relevant for working remotely (such as COBIT 2019, or the ISO 27000 series). Examples of key topics that should be prioritized by firms and authorities are: (i) robust authentication of users and devices3 and strong encryption methods; (ii) secure remote access devices; and (iii) network security monitoring.

Remote access services and user profiles should be only activated when required. Where no business need exists, remote access should be disabled, to reduce the attack surface.

Cloud usage should be based on detailed risk assessments. Based on these risk assessments, considering the criticality of systems and data transferred to the cloud, effective security control mechanisms should be implemented making full use of the cloud facilities that support this (such as asset access controls, identity and access management, and logging and monitoring).

Teleconferences should be run on vetted platforms and protected from unauthorized access. As a much higher amount of sensitive information is transmitted and shared over teleconferencing facilities, doing a vulnerability assessment before large scale deployment is crucial for proper information security. In addition, teleconference participants should be authenticated by both technical and procedural means, for example using
PINs and reconciling actual participants with the corresponding invite.

Additional awareness campaigns on cybersecurity should be launched for all employees. As every system is only as strong as its weakest link, all employees need to understand the increased threat level stemming from phishing and social media campaigns during the pandemic. Helpdesks should quickly support users in case of suspected security incidents.

Robust controls over configurations at both ends of the remote connection should be implemented to prevent potential malicious use. For example, employees should not have administration rights on firm-owned notebooks, security hardened configurations and up-to-date endpoint security solutions should be in place, connection security parameters should be set according to good practices and should be locked, and the corporate remote access infrastructure should be tightly controlled. Security scans of devices establishing a remote connection are good practice and remote access should only be granted to compliant devices.

Firms should implement additional security controls for critical functions that are normally not allowed to work remotely. For example, users who perform such activities should only be able to connect using firm-owned and controlled devices that are fully patched and configured to a high level of security and sensitive data should not be allowed to be stored locally.

Supervisors should reinforce the message that remote work increases cyber security risk, which must be addressed with strong controls. It is suggested that authorities issue further guidance that outlines the risk and references to existing relevant guidance (if there is one in place) and provides further detail if needed, for example along the lines of this note. Supervisors should be aware that if there is no ex ante guidance and the cyber security risk management practices of firms are not sufficiently mature, then several key controls may be missing or ineffective and improving the situation will be difficult under the current circumstances. In this case, strengthening of management controls and oversight of employee activities, and awareness campaigns can try to compensate to an extent.

Sharing Sri Mulyani Indrawati Pada Toronto Centre

Okay lah sodara kuh, berhubung ada special reader minta tolong saya menerangkan apa isi dari yang disampaikan ibu Menteri saya sewaktu webinar dengan Toronto Center terkait Post-Covid 19 Crisis…baiklah saya kasih versi bahasa Indonesianya ya..tapi cuma yang bagian diskusi beliau saja. Punya ibu Carmen Reinhart saya ngga mau nerjemahin…kan yang dibutuhkan cuma pendapat dari dari sudut pandang Indonesia.

Sorry tapi I just wanna say buat yang merasa script full in English di postingan kemarin itu sulit sebenarnya kurang kreatif ya, coba postingan saya kemarin kalian Google Translate aja kan kelar. Itu mah nyari alasan aja kalau bilangnya takut salah. Lah iya lah, habis ditranslatein si mbah G yo kalian edit sendiri, kan kalian juga yang paham konteks webiar. Kalau ngga paham, tonton lagi, baca lagi script saya. Belajar ya memang begitu, jatuh bangun berulang-ulang kalau pengen bisa mahir. Okay ini buat seseorang yang mau nyocokin terjemahan dia dengan saya. Alright, hasil menerjemahkan juga tergantung latar belakang seseorang. Semacam saya ini kan awam ekonomi, jadi saya menerjemahkan bisa aja ada beberapa bagian yang tidak pas menurut kalian yang sangat paham keuangan negara. Nggak apa2, justru saya juga mau dibenerin sama kalian ya..

OK without further ado, ini dia….

Toronto Center: Ringkasan Diskusi SMI dan Carmen Reinhart


Sebagai menteri keuangan di mana ada begitu banyak tekanan pada Anda dari semua sisi, apa pemikiran awal Anda tentang cara melindungi extraordinary progress yang sebenarnya telah Anda buat khususnya untuk wanita di Indonesia?


– Krisis Covid 19 beda dengan yang krisis finsnial global di 2008-2009. Kami alami krisis keuangan ASEAN 97-98 dan Indonesia dihancurkan oleh krisis itu dengan jaminan bailout sangat besar dari sistem perbankan. Krisis sekarang menghantam langsung kepada orang-orang, bukan melalui lembaga keuangan atau korporasi. Ini adalah tentang hidup dan mati, tentang kesejahteraan sosial dan ekonomi , pekerjaan dan keamanan rakyat. Jadi jauh lebih rumit dari dua krisis sebelumnya di Indonesia. Krisis 97-98 memicu pergolakan sosial politik dan perubahan dalam ekonomi dan juga pemerintah. Kali ini menyentuh seluruh negeri sehingga kita tidak merasa bahwa kita benar-benar secara eksklusif terkena situasi tertentu. Covid 19 ini dari sudut pandang keuangan publik, benar-benar beban yang sangat besar. Permintaan untuk semua pengeluaran pemerintah meningkat karena kita perlu melindungi dari ancaman Covid: pengeluaran kesehatan meningkat secara dramatis, jaring pengaman sosial ditingkatkan secara dramatis karena orang kehilangan pekerjaan, bahkan pekerja informal. Sektor untuk Indonesia yang biasanya menjadi bantalan bagi orang yang tidak dapat bekerja di sektor formal pun bahkan tidak dapat eksis karena kita membatasi pergerakan orang. Ini belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya bahkan selama krisis keuangan itu tidak benar-benar terjadi karena orang masih bisa bergerak dan kegiatan ekonomi terutama di sektor informal masih jalan. Maka kita harus mulai berpikir seperti dua tiga langkah ke depan yaitu perusahaan yang non-performing dalam hal pinjaman mereka, sektor perbankan harus segera melakukan restrukturisasi, sehingga pemerintah memainkan peran yang sangat peran penting ketika semuanya benar-benar terhenti dan mereka tidak ingin mengambil risiko lebih lanju.

– Di sisi lain, sisi pendapatan turun. Angka bulan Mei kami revenue pemerintah turun 10%, jadi defisit kita akan meningkat. Indonesia sebenarnya mengadopsi disiplin fiskal sudah lebih dari 15 tahun yaitu kita tidak boleh memiliki defisit lebih dari 3%. Jadi selama situasi yang sangat kritis ini kita harus memiliki undang-undang darurat untuk membuka batasan ini dan memungkinkan kita untuk memiliki defisit, yang awalnya anggaran 2020 sebenarnya dirancang untuk memiliki defisit hanya 1.76% dari PDB. Keseimbangan primer hampir nol, jadi hampir seimbang. Sekarang dengan krisis ini, hanya kurang dari tiga bulan, defisit kami telah membengkak menjadi 6.4% dari PDB, itu berarti seperti 46 miliar pengeluaran khusus hanya untuk Covid atau total pengeluaran hampir 64 miliar dolar AS untuk seluruh pengeluaran terkait Covid. dan ini meningkatkan rasio utang terhadap PDB kita yang berhenti di 30% dari PDB. Sekarang kita berharap akan meningkat menjadi 37 hanya dalam enam bulan seperti ini tahun 2020 ini, 6% dari peningkatan PDB. Dan yang benar-benar kritis terutama selama Maret mungkin pasar keuangan global sangat panik. Jadi pada dasarnya tidak ada yang berani masuk pasar obligasi global. Jadi ketika pembiayaan menjadi sangat mudah, pasar benar-benar bereaksi dengan cara yang lebih masuk akal.

– Maka pemerintah benar-benar harus berpikir bagaimana menangani defisit yang melebar ketika pasar tidak terbuka? Jika beberapa negara memiliki bilateral, multilateral , misalnya Indonesia memiliki resources ini: World Bank memberi kami resources tambahan, ADB memberi kami, AID memberi kami, negara bilateral seperti Jepang Australia Prancis bahkan menyediakan kami dengan tambahan keuangan. Jadi itu adalah sesuatu yang setidaknya menjadi bantal terutama ketika pasar sangat gelisah. Sehingga kita dapat melihat bahwa pasar menjadi lebih rasional lagi, tentu saja bahkan dengan situasi Covid, setidaknya pasar merasa sekarang memahami ada “the race” dan sekarang mereka mulai setidaknya menciptakan opening/celah. Bagi emerging countries dan developing countries mereka berada dalam situasi yang lebih sulit, akses mereka terhadap keuangan jadi sangat kritis, sangat sulit selama masa ini. Untuk Indonesia setelah goncangan pada bulan Maret dan April, kami dapat memasuki pasar global dan bahkan dua minggu yang lalu, kami menerbitkan obligasi global Sukuk, dan kami memiliki tingkat bunga atau harga yang terendah dalam sejarah kami. Itu karena situasi keuangan global, tingkat bunganya sangat rendah. Tetapi tingkat bunga rendah di negara maju sebenarnya tidak langsung dapat diakses oleh banyak negara di dunia. Jadi secara global dunia benar-benar menghadapi tantangan besar: fragmentasi di pasar, perbedaan dalam hal akses serta harga, dan tentu saja gangguan dalam perekonomian misal dari kesehatan, guncangan sosial dan ekonomi karena Covid ini.

– Indonesia merespons dengan sangat cepat, untungnya karena pengalaman saya sendiri pada 2008-2009 setidaknya saya tahu tentang bagaimana kita harus menyesuaikan anggaran. Kami memiliki undang-undang darurat, kami memperluas defisit, kami mengamankan pengeluaran terutama untuk kesehatan dan jaring pengaman sosial, kami juga mulai restrukturisasi hutang terutama perusahaan, usaha kecil menengah. Ini terutama adalah hutang para wanita kita , jadi ini untuk inklusi keuangan dan kesetaraan. Kebanyakan dari mereka sebenarnya adalah wanita yang memiliki kurang dari sepuluh juta rupiah di Indonesia dan itulah fokus kami. Kami telah melakukan restrukturisasi selama enam bulan dan memberi mereka subsidi tambahan untuk suku bunga mereka. ni benar-benar dicoba untuk memberikan keleluasaan bagi sektor informal atau sangat mikro atau ultra mikro ukuran perusahaannya yang menurut sistem perbankan. Kita juga harus mengurus lembaga non bank, yang sebenarnya memberikan cukup banyak hutang terutama untuk sepeda motor. Anda tahu salah satu perbedaan dari krisis ini dibandingkan dengan 2008 adalah bahwa kita untungnya memiliki memiliki teknologi, banyak transaksi pada digital online. Pandemi di Indonesia pusat penyebarannya adalah Jakarta, yang lebih maju dalam teknologi. Tanpa ada kontak tetapi transaksi masih terus terjadi karena banyak orang beralih ke transaksi online digital, yang sebenarnya mempercepat transformasi ekonomi kita menjadi lebih digital juga.   Digitalisasi akan mengubah banyak hal secara dramatis, dari pendidikan, kesehatan, cara kita bekerja dan transaksi ekonomi. Saya pikir ini berkah dari Covid. Tapi sampai sekarang keadaan masih sangat sulit, secara ekonomi dan tentu saja dari sudut pandang keuangan publik.


Apa yang terjadi di pasar keuangan berlawanan dengan ekonomi riil dan Anda tahu apa implikasinya bagi orang-orang yang kehilangan pekerjaan dalam jumlah besar harus memodifikasi perilaku mereka. Maksud saya Sri Mulyani, Anda tahu banyak orang mungkin tidak ingin pergi ke kantor lagi, juga dengan global travel untuk bisnis atau untuk pleasure sehingga Anda tahu itulah caranya mengubah cara kita sebagai pelaku ekonomi.

Dan kemudian kembali ke bagaimana kita financing, apakah Anda tahu kita sebagai pemegang saham World Bank akan memikirkan rekapitalisasi lainnya. Tetapi melakukannya tidak dengan pemahaman bahwa neraca harus bekerja jauh lebih keras daripada sebelumnya dan sebenarnya kita sedikit mengkalibrasi selera risiko kita.


– Ketika kami memikirkan tentang sumber pembiayaan, dari mana kami akan mendapatkan keuangan, itu benar-benar tergantung dari satu negara ke negara lain. Negara yang mendapat akses pembiayaan yang jauh lebih mapan, apakah pasar obligasi Anda di dalam negeri juga cukup dalam, maka setidaknya Anda masih memiliki sumber pembiayaan ini. Banyak emerging countries yang masih dalam tahap sangat awal sebenarnya mengalami akses obligasi global serta pasar obligasi domestik mereka sendiri yang  masih belum berkembang dengan baik. Belum lagi bagi banyak negara berpenghasilan rendah yang masih belum memiliki kemampuan dan kapasitas untuk mengeluarkan pasar global. Jadi bagi mereka yang benar-benar bergantung pada dukungan multilateral, bilateral kemudian mereka pergi ke sektor swasta. Biasanya konsorsium bank umum dan mereka dapat memiliki harga yang sangat tinggi, suku bunga tinggi, yang terputus dengan apa yang sebenarnya terjadi secara global. Bagi mereka yang sudah memiliki akses maka mereka menghadapi ketidakpastian pasar selama waktu krisis, bahwa mereka benar-benar membutuhkan pembiayaan tersebut sehingga Anda benar-benar harus menemukan keseimbangan yang tepat untuk negara. Untuk Indonesia dalam hal ini kita benar-benar harus memperdalam pasar domestik kita. Tetapi bahkan di pasar domestik ada mata uang lokal, partisipasi foreign buyers masih cukup signifikan. Dan ketika Anda mengalami penghentian mendadak atau capital outflow, sama seperti apa yang terjadi Maret lalu. Seperti hanya dalam satu minggu kita memiliki 100 untuk 24 triliun, ini hampir seperti 0,9% dari PDB kita yang saya pikir sangat besar bagi suatu negara alami kejutan itu. Itu benar-benar menakutkan karena kita tidak tahu berapa lama ini akan terjadi, kan? Jadi deepening pasar Anda sendiri dan mengandalkan mata uang lokal Anda sendiri sangat penting. Untuk Indonesia ketika kami merancang peningkatan defisit ini dengan sangat dramatis hingga di atas 6%, kami melihat sumber pembiayaan pertama adalah milik kami sendiri. Yaitu kita memiliki beberapa yang kita sebut sovereign fund untuk pendidikan. Jadi kami menggunakan semua sumber pembiayaan jangka panjang yang ada di Indonesia untuk menjadi the first lender of last resource.

– Kedua, kita menggunakan pasar obligasi domestik kita sendiri, mata uang lokal dan kita juga melakukan relaksasi kemampuan bank sentral untuk membeli untuk berpartisipasi dalam pasar primer (to buy to participate in the primary market), yang ini tidak pernah terjadi di Indonesia dan kami sebenarnya sangat anti terhadap praktik semacam ini. Karena kami memiliki bank sentral yang sepenuhnya independen. Mereka hanya menguasai inflasi dan stabilitas nilai tukar. Sekarang mereka benar-benar harus memikul beban yang sama dengan pemerintah dengan memungkinkan mereka untuk berpartisipasi dalam pasar obligasi dan pembelian pasar primer sebagai pembeli siaga (stanby buyer). Sehingga setidaknya memberikan kepastian bahwa defisit ini dapat dibiayai. Tentu saja kita harus sangat berhati-hati dengan inflasi dan nilai tukar. Tetapi sampai sekarang fokus kita pada kontraksi, depresi, dan resesi yang sekarang kita lihat sebagai ancaman nyata bagi perekonomian. Maka seperti yang saya katakan, peran multilateral dan bilateral sangat penting. Saya sangat menghargai bahwa semua lembaga multilateral,  Bank Dunia, ADB, AII, bahkan Bank Pembangunan Islam, semuanya menawarkan saya. Apa yang bisa saya lakukan dengan pinjaman cepat yang terkait dengan penanganan Covid? Kami benar-benar merancang dengan sangat cepat dan kemudian mereka cepat mencairkan dan itu benar-benar menciptakan wealth benefit bagi kami, tidak hanya pembiayaan tetapi juga untuk menenangkan pasar terutama nilai tukar karena mereka melihat bahwa cadangan bank sentral meningkat dengan pencairan kami dari multilateral ini. Jadi mereka melihat bahwa central bank reserve tidak habis dan tidak apa-apa. Karena tidak ada yang salah dengan ekonomi kita untuk memulainya dengan benar, itu hanya shock saja dan tiba-tiba Anda benar-benar harus mengembalikan the trust dan confidence lagi.

– Dan itu sebabnya sudah waktunya bagi lembaga multilateral ini untuk menambah modal lagi. Saya pikir Bank Dunia telah memiliki capital increase baru-baru ini. Untuk Indonesia, kami belum menggunakan akses ini. Tapi kita tahu sangat penting ketika kita berhadapan dengan pasar yang sangat tidak stabil dan tidak rasional perilakunya. Pernah terjadi pada tahun 2008 ketika banyak negara seperti Indonesia sebenarnya baik-baik saja, fundamental kita baik dan tiba-tiba ada kasus Lehman Brothers dan kemudian perilaku benar-benar tidak rasional atau tidak menentu dalam kasus ini. pada saat itu Anda perlu memiliki spot gap (celah) yang merasionalisasi pasar melalui mekanisme lembaga multilateral yang ada untuk memberi kami standby financing selama masa kritis ini. Jadi ini melengkapi terutama ketika pasar tidak dapat diandalkan perilakunya dan kita tahu bahwa krisis selalu terjadi. Kita benar-benar tidak tahu apa yang akan terjadi di dunia. Pertama dalam hal trajectory pemulihan ekonomi ini. Karena ini bukan hanya seperti satu shock saja. Anda hanya membuat neraca menjadi lebih baik lagi dan Anda akan recovery. Bahkan jika Anda merestrukturisasi dan balance Anda tidak apa-apa sekarang, di bawah restrukturisasi ini Anda menghadapi situasi ekonomi di mana orang tidak ingin bepergian, ke pusat perbelanjaan, ke bioskop, ke restoran, jadi kita benar-benar tidak tahu bagaimana orang akan merasa aman dan kemudian berperilaku dengan cara normal yang kemudian dapat menghasilkan kegiatan ekonomi. Tidak ada kepastian perubahan perilaku semacam itu sampai vaksin ditemukan maka kita akan menghadapi situasi ini hingga berapa lama. Dan itumenjadi bagian tersulit untuk memulai kembali ekonomi. Itu benar-benar seperti Anda mulai membuka, tetapi orang masih sangat berhati-hati dalam situasi seperti ini. Tantangannya adalah Anda benar-benar harus memainkan long game, tidak ada short shock langsung recovery.

– Jika kita belajar dari Flu Spanyol 1918 yang berlangsung 2 tahun itu berarti apakah Anda akan mampu bertahan selama dua tahun ini? Dalam kasus Indonesia ketika kami merancang undang-undang darurat yang menetapkan, menghilangkan batas defisit kami, ketika saya sidang kabinet saya mengatakan kami memberi tiga tahun bagi Indonesia untuk memiliki defisit di atas 3%. Dan kemudian setelah tiga tahun kita kembali ke disiplin fiskal lagi, kembali ke batas 3% lagi. Tapi jika orang bertanya kepada saya bagaimana Anda tahu itu akan menjadi tiga tahun? Saya tidak tahu, tapi kita berpikir mungkin ini cukup. Dan dalam tiga tahun ini kami benar-benar harus memastikan bahwa Anda akan dapat membangun fondasi yang tepat untuk terjadinya pemulihan. Perlu diingat ketika sekarang defisit di Indonesia adalah 6,3 yang berarti tahun depan kita harus dapat memiliki defisit yang lebih rendah dari itu, sehingga pengurangan dari defisit ini tidak akan membuat additional shock untuk pemulihan ekonomi . Jadi benar-benar menyeimbangkan antara desain fiskal, kebijakan moneter sekarang dimana bank sentral memungkinkan untuk membiayai defisit yang adil ini sampai batas tertentu tanpa membahayakan disiplin pasar dan reputasi kredibilitas kebijakan makro kita. Ini semua adalah serangkaian kebijakan yang kami coba lakukan di mana Anda merespons situasi langsung tanpa membahayakan reputasi stabilitas makro dan reputasi yang diperoleh dengan susah payah, dan pasar terus berfungsi.

– Di masa yang sangat sulit ini peran IMF, bank dan lembaga multilateral itu sangat penting. Karena mereka dapat mendukung kita ketika kita benar-benar membutuhkannya, ketika tidak ada sumber pembiayaan lain yang dapat menjustifikasi jenis pembiayaan itu. Joka kita pergi ke pasar dengan harga yang sangat tinggi, itu tidak akan membenarkan Anda menghabiskan uang untuk keadaan darurat. Jadi dalam situasi seperti ini yang saya pikir desain lembaga multilateral dengan semua instrumen dan kebijakan harus benar-benar diletakkan dalam konteks barang publik global atau global public debt seperti Covid atau perubahan iklim semacam ini yang pasti akan membutuhkan mekanisme, instrumen dan institusi tertentu, institusi global, yang memungkinkan kita untuk melengkapi the market discipline instrument. Tetapi tidak selalu dapat diandalkan dengan kontinuitas seperti ini, karena mengelola ekonomi dan negara, Anda tidak bisa mengambil liburan. Negara harus terus berlanjut jadi apa pun yang terjadi tidak peduli bagaimana volatilitas ekonomi di pasar. Tapi kami berusaha menghindari punishing behavior pasar sejauh mungkin. Dan saya pikir dalam Covid ini beberapa kebijakan pasti diadopsi. Suatu saat Anda benar-benar memiliki pasar dan ketika pasar tidak dapat diandalkan, intervensi dan kontrol pemerintah dapat dibenarkan. Tapi itu seharusnya tidak menggantikan pasar dalam jangka panjang, seharusnya seperti intervensi sementara yang kredibel tetapi kemudian Anda harus mundur ketika situasinya kembali normal. Saya pikir fleksibilitas semacam itu oleh pemerintah sangat dibutuhkan. Tetapi itu membutuhkan peraturan dan pengaturan kelembagaan di masing-masing negara untuk dapat melakukan cara on & off, temporer, Anda kemudian menarik diri sedemikian rupa sehingga memungkinkan proses pengembangan ini berlanjut dalam negara tanpa gangguan yang berasal dari kejutan semacam ini.


Apa respons kebijakan terhadap krisis regresif ini Sri Mulyani? Maksud saya dengan semua pengalaman Anda tentang inklusi Keuangan Anda tahu terutama yang termiskin di dalam negeri. Apa yang dapat dilakukan pemerintah, kemajuan yang telah kita buat pada pendidikan anak perempuan , penundaan usia menikah satu hal dan dengan reversed risks yaitu lonjakan kekerasan dalam rumah tangga juga? Kami tahu ini erjadi kami tahu wanita dan gadis akan menjadi yang paling terpukul, kami memiliki sejumlah besar kebijakan dan program. Apa yang kita lakukan untuk mendorong ini menjadi agenda utama dan tebakan saya adalah jawabannya akan banyak berkaitan dengan politik sebagai ekonomi.


– Seperti yang saya katakan, banyak politisi juga, mereka menyadari bahwa Covid ini langsung menyerang rakyat. Jadi dalam hal mereka menuntut pemerintah atau mendukung pemerintah, partai politik mendukung pemerintah untuk melakukan intervensi luar biasa. Saya kira kurang lebih relatif di luar sana. Kita tidak memiliki kendala dalam hal urgensi dan tuntutan untuk intervensi atau merancang kebijakan. Tantangannya lebih pada bagaimana dalam situasi darurat ini Anda dapat merancang kebijakan yang baik. Akan selalu ada trade-off antara kecepatan dan respons cepat dengan kemampuan Anda. Dan terutama ketika negara tidak memiliki necessary condition misalnya seperti sistem untuk kesehatan, untuk pendidikan, untuk jaring pengaman sosial. Misalnya di Indonesia, Anda memiliki nama dan alamat orang miskin di Indonesia. Kami memiliki 40%  masyarakat bawah by-name by-address. Ini adalah 29 juta rumah tangga, tetapi data mereka tidak diperbarui hingga situasi terakhir, terutama ketika mereka terkena Covid. Maka akan ada seperti new poor, yang tidak akan dimasukkan dalam database ini. Jadi ketika Anda memperluas peta jaring keselamatan sosial Anda dengan bantuan teknologi , Anda dapat dengan mudah digitalisasi dan Anda benar-benar mentransfer melalui Bank, Indonesia adalah negara kepulauan. Kami masih memiliki daerah terpencil. Untungnya, Covid, sebenarnya kata untungnya tidak tepat, Covid paling banyak menyerang di kota besar seperti ibu kota Jakarta. Jadi dalam hal ini, jaring pengaman sosial dapat dilakukan melalui transfer kami langsung melalui sistem pembayaran digital. Dan peran Fintech di Indonesia telah meningkat sangat dramatis, sehingga memiliki teknologi dan sistem memungkinkan Anda untuk merespons. Tetapi ketika Anda berbicara tentang pentargetan, masih terjadi inclusion-exclusion error karena updating data dan kemudian juga Covid membuat new poor/ warga miskin baru yang tidak ditangkap dalam database yang ada. Jadi itu tantangannya. Dan yang kedua tentu saja bagi kami untuk benar-benar mencoba menemukan bagaimana menjangkau terutama yang paling miskin dan yang paling rentan. Untuk Indonesia kami menemukan bahwa memberikan subsidi tagihan listrik untuk yang kelas rumah tangga adalah yang paling efektif. Ada lebih dari 724 juta rumah tangga yang benar-benar mendaftar pada tagihan listrik pada tingkat terendah dan mereka sebenarnya hanya memiliki kapasitas 450 VA per bulan. Kami berikan mereka listrik gratis selama enam bulan. Jadi kami mencoba menemukan bagaimana cara terbaik untuk mencapai bagian masyarakat bawah 20% atau bawah 40%. Selain itu, kami juga mengkonversi beberapa kebijakan yang ada. Misalnya kita memiliki Transfer Dana Desa ke setiap desa di Indonesia. Kami memiliki 75 ribu desa di Indonesia, jadi kami mengatakan bahwa sepertiga dari dana Desa ini harus dikonversi menjadi jaring pengaman sosial , bentuk Subsidi Langsung untuk yang paling terpukul. Karena untuk Indonesia mereka yang menganggur biasanya kembali ke desa mereka dan itulah mengapa kami menyediakan jaring pengaman di tingkat desa.

– Jadi saya katakan bahwa kami mencoba menggunakan semua kebijakan dan instrumen yang tersedia yang memungkinkan kami untuk merespons dalam waktu sangat singkat. Itu sangat sangat penting untuk melakukan karena itulah yang dibutuhkan negara. Itulah mengapa krisis ini memicu perlunya reformasi. Kami tidak boleh menyia-nyiakan krisis ini. Kami menggunakan ini untuk memicu reformasi di sektor kesehatan, dalam jaring pengaman sosial, pendidikan, termasuk keakuratan data dan bagaimana kami akan mempersiapkan pemulihan.

– Karena ketidakpastian ini yang harus kita lakukan hanyalah mempersiapkan periode ketidakpastian yang lebih lama. Penghindaran risiko. Kita mulai lagi bagaimana bank  merestrukturisasi pinjaman dan perusahaan atau korporasi atau bahkan UKM setelah mereka direstrukturisasi mereka semua tidak ingin mengembalikan modal kerja lagi. Mereka hanya ingin menunggu sampai semua proses restrukturisasi selesai dan itu bisa berarti enam bulan, delapan sembilan bulan, satu tahun. Jadi Anda bisa membayangkan jika Anda menunggu enam hingga dua belas bulan berarti ekonomi seperti turun. Tidak ada kredit. Sekarang jika saya bertanya apa yang akan jadi credit growth? Dulu kita punya 12% selama bertahun-tahun hingga sembilan. Sekarang yang saya hanya 3% atau 4%, cukup beruntung jika masih memiliki pertumbuhan kredit positif danmungkin pada bidang yang terkait dengan kegiatan kesehatan dan makanan dan minuman yang masih benar-benar bergerak. Tapi saya pikir mereka hanya berhenti. Jadi sekarang pemerintah berusaha memperkenalkan manajemen risiko atau asuransi untuk pinjaman modal kerja baru sehingga bank merasa aman untuk meminjamkan lagi dan perusahaan yang mereka pilih merasa terlindungi karena pemerintah akan membayar asuransi dari the first loss of working capital. Jadi kami menempatkan anggaran yang didedikasikan untuk asuransi semacam ini bagi modal kerja baru, karena kami tidak ingin mereka berhenti di masa restrukturisasi. Pada wanita saya pikir ini sangat penting bagi kami, karena Covid sangat memukul terutama yang termiskin dan wanita. Dan Anda menyebutkan tentang kekerasan dalam rumah tangga, kami juga mendengar dari kementerian urusan wanita, kasus ini sebenarnya meningkat ketika orang hanya di rumah dan terutama untuk banyak daerah miskin di perumahan miskin, maka kekerasan dalam rumah tangga akan menjadi salah satu satu tantangan terbesar yang harus kita hadapi. Setidaknya dari sudut pandang ekonomi, apa yang kami coba lakukan adalah membantu mendedikasikan restrukturisasi dan dukungan untuk ultra kredit mikro, yang 80 % peminjam adalah perempuan, kami memiliki lebih dari 8,2 juta perempuan meminjam dan mereka benar-benar orang yang melakukan kegiatan ekonomi kegiatan yang sangat mendasar. Kami sampaikan Anda tidak perlu membayar pokok Anda atau bahkan dalam hal ini semua suku bunga akan seperti dibayar oleh pemerintah. Kami masih berpikir saat ini haruskah kita memberikan modal tambahan kepada mereka karena mereka adalah orang yang sebenarnya masih mempertahankan transaksi dasar tertentu di masyarakat, terutama daerah pedesaan adalah di antara sektor informal yang baru saja mulai bergerak lagi. Jadi kami melanjutkan kebijakan kami, kami akan melihat di area mana yang sebenarnya bisa lebih banyak dibantu terutama yang paling rentan yaitu orang-orang miskin dan para wanita.


Satu  menit kata penutup dari SMI.


Saya pikir ketika matahari bersinar, Anda harus memperbaiki atap rumah Anda. Jadi pada dasarnya Anda benar-benar melakukan kontra-siklus. Ketika situasi benar-benar bahagia, semua orang berpesta, ini adalah pekerjaan nyata bagi Anda untuk memperkuat fundamental Anda. Sehingga Anda selalu yakin bahwa ketika krisis berikutnya terjadi, Anda memiliki penyangga, Anda memiliki ruang dan Anda memiliki kapasitas untuk menghadapinya. Maksud saya itu terjadi di sisi fiskal, sisi moneter, di jaring pengaman sosial, di banyak bidang lainnya. Jadi pada dasarnya jangan sia-siakan saat situasinya bagus. Itu berarti Anda harus bekerja lebih keras, sehingga ketika situasinya tidak baik, maka Anda juga harus bekerja lebih keras, tetapi setidaknya Anda mulai dalam situasi yang jauh lebih baik.

OK….gimana? Saya itu 50% dibantu Google Translate juga sih, nggak sampai 30 menit terjemahan ini kelar. Waktu itu saya harus bikin cepat buat dishare di group Pusdiklat saya karena kami akan ada sesi talk show dengan mengangkat tema bahasan ibu Menteri itu. Yang lama tuh bikin scrip nya ya sodara kuh…beneran 8 jam saya nggak ngapa2in cuma buat bolak-balik ndengerin diskusi tadi. Cara saya yaitu ikuti dulu pertama2, buat notes seperlunya coz yang penting paham jalan diskusinya. Stelah itu baru mulai ngetik script, saya pause beberapa kali buat ngetik di Word jika ada yang kurang jelas terpaksa mundurin video dikit. Ini yang bikin lama. Saya berhenti cuma buat ke toilet atau sholat aja. Makan aja saya skip. Coz when I’m really into something, ngga sempat makan jadinya. Bagus kan, buat diet juga hehehee…

Eh bener dik, habis baca ini ha saya tunggu koreksinya, japri ae. Thanks udah ikutan baca rek…

Toronto Centre Post-COVID-19 Crisis: Webinar

Sesi webinar dari Toronto Centre ini tayang pas hari ulang tahun saya 29 Juni 2020 lalu. Saya ikuti sesi sejam lebih sepuluh menit itu, rasanya kayak mengikuti kelas TOEFL Listening ya, coz speakers banyak pakai aksen American English. Penting diikuti karena ibu menteri saya, bu Sri Mulyani Indrawati yang jadi panelis, dan topiknya terkait isu inklusi dan pengarusutamaan gender. Masih terkait dengan bahasan women leadership di postingan saya kemarin. Hayoo udah baca belom?

Okay guys, saya share script bahasa Inggrisnya ya. Susah payah saya bikinnya lebih dari 8 jam nonstop karena lebih ke kecepatan mengetik saya yang menurun nih. Sambil latihan bahasa Inggris juga kleyan, biar nggak manjah mintak terjemahan mulu 😀 😀

Here we go….

Script of Toronto Crisis


, … shock remains sound and keep providing crucial support to the real economy. We’re now witnessing devastation coercing its way through Latin America and other developing countries. Many of which do not have the pockets. This crisis will have important implications for financial stability, Financial Inclusion, gender equality and international Development, all are important to Toronto Senate official. today we sit down with senior accomplished leaders to hear their perspectives. The Honorable Dr. Sri Mulyani is Indonesia’s Finance Minister and Dr. Carmen Reinhart is the World Bank vice president and chief economist. We’re also thrilled to have Dr. Susanna Moorehead, chair of OECD Development Assistance Committee as our senior moderator,  you’ve received their bios.  A big welcome to our panel and moderator. Please use the Q&A tab to submit your questions. A big thanks to our funders, Global Affairs Canada, Swedish sida IMF, USAID, Jersey Overseas Aid and Commission.  Also a big thank to our staff Damon Chanakcha and Dianne Byrd who worked so hard to put this panel together. It is now my pleasure to hand over the session to Susanna.


Babak, thank you very much and a very warm welcome to all our participants. I see we’ve got 150 already and more joining. As as we speak and of course a huge welcome and thanks to my two panelists Dr. Sri Mulyani Indrawati , the Finance Minister of Indonesia and Carmen Reinhart who recently appointed the vice president and chief economist of the World Bank. There is an invisible threat that joins us when I was the UK’s executive director at the World Bank, Sri Mulyani was there in Washington and now Carmen is, so I think it’s, I hope, a virtual circle of good ideas too that we can talk through this morning, this afternoon or evening depending on where you where you are in the world now. I understand from Babak that this is actually the thirteenth such conversation that the Toronto Centre has had  and all of us whether we’re working domestically or internationally are having Covid conversations. Depending where you are in the world, some are still in the eye of the storm,  managing the immediate consequences of the pandemic. and elsewhere  it is the the economic building back that people are focused on. One thing is for sure is that nothing is ever going to be quite the same, and secondly that as ever in periods of crisis, it is the poorest countries in the world that suffer most, and within those countries, men and girls who suffer even more.  

So our topics today which are wide-ranging, which is great because it means we can really get some ideas flowing. What are the implications for financial stability, financial inclusion, gender inequality and international development. So I don’t know how long we’ve got that. I think we could spend them several months probably, on this one. Let’s try and focus in, you know, some really new ideas. Let’s think out of the box and I would say that to participants as well. I don’t think anyone has an answer yet. And I think this is a real inflection point in terms of global finance and international development to think differently. And this now rather a cliche building back better,  but what do we mean by that? What might better look like? And I think critically for this conversation how on earth are we going to pay for it.

So without further ado, as Babak said, I’ve not been to read out your illustrious bios but I think both of you are are uniquely qualified to be able to talk to these topics . It’s great to have a woman, we’re gonna be honest. Often happen we’re usually you know hugely outnumbered.

So let’s without further ado dive into the questions just for the audience. I think I will ask both Carmen and Sri Mulyani a couple of questions, we’ll have a little conversation and then you need to use the Q&A function for questions. I’ll warn you I’m much more likely to select questions that are short and sharpened to the point,  and that are interesting and provocative if you’d like,  but that ones that are really going to just stimulate the debate.

Okay so can I turn first to Carmen? Huge congratulations on your appointment something of a baptism of fire I should think, and I understand you haven’t actually managed to get to Washington yet which is not surprising. But we’re all learning to work in different ways. I mean you I know I’ve done a huge amount of research and work on the financial crisis in 2008 which is actually when I just arrived at the World Bank 10 days before Lehman Brothers went there. So I remember how we dealt with it then. I mean there are an awful lot of parallels being drawn and my question to you is are there any insights from the financial crisis or indeed from the Great Recession and where should we stop thinking that we can learn from history?


So I think that the first question of how similar this is to 2008-2009 is as you might imagine a very recurring one given that’s the crisis most people still have fresh or relatively fresh in their minds. And the first thing I respond to that because it has enormous bearing on the resolution and what we can learn or not learn is unlike that crisis. This crisis has health origins, which also means that how quickly we overcome it , to some degree is outside this or to a large degree it’s outside the sphere of economics. You know that if the pattern of global disease ends with the first wave, that is a very different scenario from one in which like the influenza pandemic of 1918 , which ended only in 1920, it goes through more than one way. So an important difference is if you will there is no such thing as a run-of-the-mill financial crisis, but 2008-2009 was a more standard financial crisis. Another important difference is 2008-2009 early on in the fall of 2008 and early 2009 the fallout was indeed Global Emerging Markets got hit and so on, but the 2008-2009 crisis was a financial crisis in 11 advanced economies. And this is truly global. So indeed the parallels more akin to the 30s. In terms of learning as to you know how quickly we can overcome it, I think recognizing problems early on now I’m talking about on the economic Face. as I mentioned unfortunately until we know the path of the disease it’s hard to make any kind of prediction about the path of the economy . But I think a takeaway from 2008-2009 was that you need to deal with early recognition of any kind of debt overhang. I’m referring now not so much to the government side but also to the private side, and I think early debt restructuring you know a lot of care as to how much the government takes on private debts from the banks are maybe important lessons from 2008-2009. you know Ireland started out with debt to GDP of 20-some percent and ended up with that over a hundred percent because it took on all the bank debt. I hope we don’t see get to see that I hope there’s lessons learned about how to also manage the financial stress and the financial fragilities that this crisis is creating. I don’t think we here I’ll conclude by saying that I don’t think we hear about that right now because of course we have the more imminent concerns about whether the health crisis is over, we’re still dealing with a reeling and you know crashing indicators of economic activity. So that’s not in the forefront, but the financial implications, the financial crisis type implications should not be neglected at this stage.


Great thank you very much. I mean I think we’re all having to add zeros to all our normal indicators. Let me turn to Mr. Sri Mulyani. You must have one of the most difficult jobs in the world at the moment, haven’t you? I mean I think being a finance minister where there’s so much pressure on you from all sides, such a huge responsibility to try and protect the enormous gains I know that you’ve made particularly in terms of financial inclusion. But also presumably your revenues declining, I mean how does it feel and what are your early thoughts about how to protect the extraordinary progress actually that you’ve made particularly for women in Indonesia?


Well, thank you Susanna. This Covid 19 is really different from 2008-2009 as Karen mentioned because I was Finance Minister also during the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. Or even for Indonesia, we have 97-98, that is the ASEAN financial crisis and Indonesia was crushed by that crisis with a very huge bail out of the banking system. What we are experienced now is the crisis which hit hard directly to the people not through the financial institution or corporation but to the people because as you mentioned earlier this is about life and death and also in terms of their social welfare and the economic both in terms of job and the security of the people. So it’s much more complicated than the previous two crisis in Indonesia. Even though we also have a very deep 97-98 crisis because it then triggered the political social upheaval and change in the economy and as well as government. This time what is at least make us a little bit more safe because it hits all the country so we don’t feel that we are really exclusively hit by a certain situation. that’s one thing. but we also know that immediately with this Covid 19 from the public finance point of view, it’s really a huge burden. you immediately can see that the demand for all government spending increase because we need to protect from both the threat of this Covid so the health spending immediately increased dramatically , the social safety net need to be increased dramatically because people losing the jobs, even the informal sector for Indonesia which is usually as a cushion for many people who cannot work on the formal sector, they cannot even exist because we are restricting people movement. so definitely virtually everything is just stand still and stop. and that’s really a shock we just never happened before. because even during the financial crisis that is not really the case. people can still move, so the economic activity especially on an informal sector happening and the in this time you cannot do that. so everything is stopped and stand still. So on the other hand, then we have to start thinking like two three steps ahead that is the company is doing to be non performed in terms of their loan, banking sector definitely is going to have a hit hard by this non-performing and they have to do the restructuring immediately, so the government plays a very critical role when everything is actually stopped and they don’t want to take any further risk, right? on the other hand, the revenue side as Susanna mentioned earlier is dropped . Our May figures on our government revenue dropped by 10 percent. So we immediately can see that the deficit is going to increase. Indonesia actually has more than 15 years adopting fiscal discipline. we are not allowed to have deficit more than three percent. so during this very critical situation we have to have an emergency law to actually opening this cap and allowing us to have a deficit, which originally my 2020 budget is actually designed to have a deficit only one point seventy six percent of GDP. Primary balance is almost zero. So it’s almost balanced. now with this crisis only less than three months our deficit has been ballooning to become six point four percent of GDP, that means like forty six billion dedicated spending only for Covid or total spending is almost 64 billion u.s. dollar for the whole Covid related spending . And this increase our debt to GDP ratio which is stopping at 30 percent of GDP, now we will expect that is going to increase in to 37 only within like this six months of this 2020 , 6 percent of GDP increase. And also what is really critical especially during March I mean Ms.Carmen knows may be very well the market was so panic the global financial market . So basically no one dare to enter the global bonds market. So when financing is becoming, so folatile, market can really react in the more reasonable rational way.

Then the government really have to think about how you are going to deal with the widening deficit when the market is not open ? If some country have like bilateral , multilateral as Indonesia have this kind of sources, word bank provide us with additional resources, ADB provide us, AID provide us, bilateral country like Japan Australia France is even providing us with additional finance. So that is something which is at least provide a cushion especially when market is so jittery. then we can see that luckily that the market is becoming more rational again , of course even with the same situation same or even worse , Covid , but market feel like they now understand the race which is I doubt that they really understand the race, so but at least now they are digesting this and now they start at least creating an opening. and for emerging country and I can I believe but even more developing country they are much in the tougher situation, I think their access to finance is going to be very critical, very difficult during this time. For Indonesia after the shock in March and April, we were able to enter the global market or even the latest two weeks ago, we actually issued the Sukuk global bonds, and we have the interest rate or the price which is the lowest in our history . it is because the global financial situation the interest rate is a very low level . But the low level interest rate in an advanced country is not actually immediately accessible for many country in the world. So there is really, globally, the world is really facing with such as huge a challenge: fragmentation in the market, disparity in term of access as well as price,  and of course disruption in our own economy whether this is coming from the health then come to the social and economic shock because of this Covid . So Indonesia is responding very quickly, luckily because my own experience in 2008-2009 at least I know the textbook about how we are going to adjust the budget . We have the emergency law, we widen the deficit, we secure the spending especially for the health and social safety net, we also start immediately after that , thinking about restructuring of the debt especially the companies, small medium enterprises. this is mainly the debt of our women so this is also for the financial inclusion and equality. I think that is also good. Most of them is actually women who own less than even ten million rupiah in Indonesia and that is exactly our focus. we’ve already put restructuring for six months and put them also additional subsidy for their interest rate. this is really tried to provide a relief for informal sector or very much micro we call it ultra micro size of the company who actually own through the banking system. we also have to deal with the non banks institution, which is actually providing quite a lot of debts for especially motorcycle. You know one of the difference from this crisis comparing to 2008 is that we have, luckily, we have technology, Susanna. You know a lot of transaction is on an online digital . so the pandemic here in Indonesia the center of the spread is Jakarta, who is more advanced on a technology. So, even though there is no contact but the transaction still continue happening because many people shift into digital online transaction , which is actually accelerating the transformation of our economy into a more digital also . Abruptly we also have to work from home there’s also changed the way we work very very dramatically. And it’s happened like after almost four months working from home, the finance ministry is still functioning. So I always make a joke with my team that maybe we don’t need those offices anymore the office building is becoming vacant for almost four months but we’re still functioning . So this will change dramatically a lot of things Susanna. From health education, the way we work and transaction in economy. I think in a way that is going to be one of the silver lining and the blessing of this Covid. But I must say as of now it is still very hard, economically and of course from the public finance point of view .


Thank you very much I mean. So I think what I’m hearing from both of you is that there are some lessons from history but there’s nobody print and I think there’s a parallel on the health side. I mean it’s certainly true that those countries that had been through the SARS pandemic were better prepared but it’s not the same, it doesn’t have quite the same global reach. You know people talk a lot about it parallels with the Ebola epidemic, which I mean I worked on in in West Africa . But I mean that was a handful of countries with very tiny populations, so you know the donor countries were able to throw everything at it.

So, my next question to both of you, really, is I think because every country is affected and everyone is having to use their fiscal head room to borrow, I mean as you say Sri Mulyani, I mean levels that were against the law until very recently . I think I’ve seen a figure of 90 trillion dollars is basically what is has been used to try and stimulate the developed world’s economies. So I mean my question is this. the demand in emerging markets and particularly in the poorest countries for additional resources is going to be very very significant. Where is that money going to come from? certainly in my my little piece of it, official development assistance,  we are doing everything we can to strive to protect those budgets , but everybody is under pressure. I know the World Bank has done a huge amount president more persons know pushed very hard on debt suspension also front-loading AIDA seeing how we can get resources into these economies as remarked me Anna you mentioned various sources of finance. But my question to both of you is now,  what can, I mean the World Bank in particular, do and its shareholders but also the international financial system more generally to make sure that countries that are really going to struggle to access these financial resources are able to prevent I think a reversal on progress towards a sustainable development goals? I mean we’re looking at tens of millions of people falling back into poverty . We’re looking at famine on a scale that I think we have not seen in the world since the 1980s. We know this needs resource where might it come from if you were thinking out of the box how do you think we could do that ? Let me turn to Carmen first.


Well, I think sort of going down the list of what the options are. The first line of defense as you know it’s been headline after headline in terms of the volume of lending by the IMF, the World Bank and the multilaterals, you know the official community has tried to respond with the existing tools and with new facilities as well to facilitate as rapid and as uncomplicated a disbursement to deal with the emergency. So the first line is of course you know a variety of fast disbursement emergency financing . Adding to that, at the being promoted by the IMF and the World Bank, the G20 went ahead on the DSSI, the suspension, the temporary suspension from May 1st to the end of the year of debt servicing for the poorest economies are the AIDA country 76 countries that were eligible, more than half of them are participating to date not all of them have engaged I will get to that. That is another temporary form of liquidity provision or resource provision. The DSSI initiative is paired with also debt transparency a debt transparency conditionality of you well that’s really about the only kind of conditionality that and this is to assure that the savings from debt servicing actually do go to their intended uses in helping countries deal with a Covid emergency be it in health be it in provision of services for the unemployed being providing a broader range of sustenance for the informal sector whatever that, that is in the domain of the countries but the important thing is that it doesn’t go to debt servicing for another creditor that is not participating as so far on your broad question of where is the financing coming from . So far, there are two concerns on the debt suspension initiative and one is how broad will China define it, so that you know if it’s narrowly defined a lot of the loans which is the lion’s share of the loans that were made by the export-import bank, by the Development Bank to state-owned enterprises in many of the low-income countries. if those are not covered then you know the debts the saving from not so servicing the debt to that country is much more limited. that’s one concern. the other major concern is that as you know our president has been very vocal from get-go trying to encourage the private sector to participate in the standstill. And there’s been what I characterize his back paddling you know initially there were statements made that were somewhat encouraging about the prospects of having the private sector also involved in the standstill but that has receded into the background and nothing has happened on that front . Now on the straight on the bigger question of you know what to expect what where where do you get the financing when your financing needs are so large . You know I would note that you know beyond the emergency measures that I’ve alluded to in terms of IMF lending and in the multilateral lending, I think a real challenge is one looks over the longer haul is neither at the IMF nor the World Bank nor any Development Bank is a central bank. and so the capacity do Federal Reserve style or an ECB style. Let’s create a facility to buy that or to provide support crisis you know these institutions are resource-constrained, they are capital constraints. so what makes those capital constraints you know a bigger, have a higher weight in the radar screen is that this shock is synchronous. You know that it’s not a couple of countries you know the minister already referred to the Asian crisis of 97-98 and that was indeed you know it so Korea Thailand Indonesia and the Philippines all were engaged with a fund day at that time but it wasn’t global one. Even you know the more widespread crisis of the 1980s which had its focal point in Latin America wasn’t a synchronous and you know the crises in Africa Asia and the Middle East were not a synchronous. So capital constraints are looking forward in terms of challenges for emerging market finance. One challenge is you know the limitations of the official capacity. another challenge and this one worries me a great deal that the minister rightly alluded to it. during March we saw what can be best described as a really scary shutdown . You know emerging market finance if you look at the Institute for International Finance capital flows they collapsed they did in a matter of four weeks what it had taken 56 weeks to do in 2008-2009 you saw the volatility the VIX in the United States plummet markets froze and the point that I’m making is.  You know a lot of market participants have taken heart and saying look. things have changed dramatically in the last couple of weeks you know in the last few weeks . There’s you know a lot of not a lot but a non-trivial amount of countries have been able to access capital markets again and capital has reflows in and so the panic face seems to have you know subsided. But there are two things that really worried me which is there is a disconnect between the finance side and what’s happening in the real economy . I think the finance side is importantly driven by the fact that the Federal Reserve lowered interest rates to zero. there is a search for yield.  You know financial market participants are searching for yields in a part of that that yield comes importantly from emerging markets and even as the fundamentals worsen there’s a willingness to lend. it is difficult to reconcile the fact that credit rating agency down grades are at an all-time high and that applies to down grades and then it allows to down rates and outlooks they’re at an all-time high and it is hard to reconcile the fact that the economic fundamentals seem to be doing worse and yet the financing terms have improved significantly . I’ll conclude by saying that I think a challenge in terms of financing ahead is not to be more too much by the temporary. Move of capital markets because capital markets as we had recent proof of are extremely volatile can turn on a dime that the vulnerability to a sudden stop in an environment in which fiscal finances and economic conditions are as as weak as they are, because of the global situation we haven’t even brought up the issue that this isn’t just as if Covid wasn’t enough this isn’t just a Covid crisis it’s also been a commodity and oil crisis as well we had the Russian Saudi War which impacted commodities and so in that kind of environment I think a real challenge is is how to limit or manage the exposure so that the vulnerability to a sudden reversal to a sudden stop.


Yes , let’s bring Sri Mulyani if I can . So look there’s a there’s a huge amount there. I mean I talk towards that I mean I think this point that what’s happening in the financial markets as opposed to what’s happening in the real economy is something we’re only just beginning to think about it and you know what the implications are going to be for people losing their jobs in huge numbers for people modifying their behavior I mean that Sri Mulyani said you know a lot of people may not want to go to the office Anymore. What about global travel for business or indeed for pleasure so you know it’s it’s how this will change the way that we are as economic actors and then going back down to how do we finance it I mean one question that I hope will come up in in the Q&A is you know should we as shareholders of the Development Bank’s be thinking about another recapitalization . but doing it no on the understanding that the balance sheet has to be worked far far harder than it has been and actually we calibrate our our risk appetite a little bit.  Let me I’m going to ask Sri Mulyani for a few comments then I’m going to open it up to the audience so please send your questions in if it’s if your question is specifically for one of the panelists please indicate that. that’s Sri Mulyani, let me hand over to you.


OK. Can I Start? Okay. When we thought about the source of financing, where we are going to get the finance I mean it’s really depend from country to country . the country who got the financing access which is much more established whether your bonds market domestically also deep enough then I think at least you still have this source of financing. many emerging country they are still in the very early stage of actually this experiencing access of global bonds as well as their own domestic bonds market is still not well developed. not to mention for many low-income country which are still not thing have the ability and capacity to issue the global market. so they for those who really depend on bilateral multilateral support then they go to the private sector. usually the consortium of the commercial bank and they can have a very very high price high interest rate, which is disconnect with what is actually happening globally. for those who’s already have the access then they are facing what common mention and I mentioned earlier there is the unpredictability of the market during the most important time that they really need those financing so you really have to find the right balance for a country for Indonesia even in this case we really have to deepen our domestic market. But even on a domestic market there is local currency the participation of foreign buyer is still quite significant. and when you are having this sudden stop or capital outflow immediately , just like what happened last March. like within only one week we have 100 for 24 trillion this is almost like 0.9 percent of our GDP which is I think huge for a country to have that shock. that scary as Carmen mentioned . It’s really scary because we don’t know how long this is going to happen, right? so really deepening your own market and relying on your own local currency is very critical . For Indonesia when we designed this deficit increase very dramatically to above 6% , we look the first financing source is our own. that is we have some what we call it sovereign fund for education. so we use all those long term financing sources which is existed in Indonesia to become our first lender of last resource.

Second, we use our own domestic bond market, local currency and we also relaxing, very critically at this moment, the ability of the central bank to buy to participate in the primary market, which just never happen Indonesia and Indonesia is actually very anti to those kind of practice. because we have the central bank totally independent. they are only taking power of inflation and stability on the exchange rate. now they really have to carry the same burden with the government by allowing them to participate in the bonds market and the primary market buy as standby buyer. so that at least gives the certainty that this deficit can be financed. of course we have to be very careful with the inflation and exchange rate. but as of now this is not really the focus because we really focus on the contraction or depression or recession that we are now seeing as the real threat for the economy. then as I said, the role of the multilateral and bilateral is very critical. as Cameron mentioned I really appreciate that all multilateral institutions World Bank ADB AII be even Islamic Development Bank they are all offering me. what can I do with the fast disbursed loan related to the Covid handling  that is on a halt. so we really design very quickly and then they then fast disbursing and that really  create wealth benefit for us, not only financing but also to calm down the market especially exchange rate because they see that the reserve of the central bank is increased with our disbursement from this multilateral. so they see that oh it’s not depleted and it’s ok . because there is nothing wrong with our economy to begin with right? it is just a shock and suddenly you really have to restore what you call it the trust and the confidence again.

And that’s why you mentioned Susana whether it is time for this multilateral institution to increase the capital again. I think World Bank has already have the capital increase just recently . for Indonesia we haven’t like use all this the space that is allowed for us to access the word bank , which is good . But we also know that maybe that’s not the case for other the capacity of the multilateral institution as I mentioned is always very important when we are facing with the market which is so volatile and not rational in term of their behavior. This has happened in 2008 when many countries like Indonesia is actually we are ok, our fundamental is good and then suddenly there is a Lehman Brothers case and then the behavior is totally irrational or erratic in this case . At that very moment you need to have like a spot gap who rationalizing again the market through this kind of mechanism of multilateral institution who’s there to provide us with a standby financing during this very critical time. So this complement thing especially when market is not reliable in term of their behavior and we know that in many episodes of the crisis is always the case. And then of course in the long run as Carmen mentioned I mean we really don’t know what is going to happen in the world.

First in terms of the trajectory of the recovery of this economy.  because this is not just like one shot. You just putting the balance sheet into a better shape again and you are going to recover. even if you restructure and your balance it is ok now, under this restructuring you are facing with the situation of the economy in which people don’t want to travel , they are not going to the shopping mall,  they are not going to the movie they are not going to the restaurant. So we really don’t know how people is going to feel safe that they are going to then behave in a normal way that then can generate the economic activity. this is what is the most uncertain is actually that kind of change behavior. An until the vaccine is invented or it’s going to be like easily accessed then we are going to face with this situation . so we don’t know how long . And that is creating the very difficult part of restarting the economy. It’s really like you start opening up, but people are still very cautious in this kind of situation.  So with that, then question is that you really have to have you are playing a long game. This is not like one short shock and then we’re going to be recovered. This is going to be like shock with you and stay with you and then quite some time. So if we learn from 1918 Spanish Flu that is two years as Carmen mentioned, that means are you going to be able to withstand these two years? in Indonesia case when we designed the emergency law that is putting this limit, eliminating the limit of our deficit, when I presented in the cabinet I said we give three years for Indonesia to allow to have deficit above three percent. and then after three years we are going to the fiscal discipline again going back to the three percent cap again. but this is really when people ask me how do you know it’s going to be three years? I don’t know . but maybe we’re thinking at that time this is maybe adequate . And within these three years we really have to make sure that you are going to be able to build the right foundation for this recovery to happen. Bear in mind when now the deficit in Indonesia is 6.3 that means next year we have to be able to have a deficit which is lower than that, so that the tapering of this division is not going to create additional shock to the recovery of the economy. so it’s really like balancing between the fiscal design, monetary now policy which is central bank allowing to finance this just deficit to some extent without jeopardizing the market discipline and reputation of our macro policy credibility. these are all the set of policy that we tried to do in which you are responding to the immediate situation without jeopardizing the hard-earned reputation of macro stability and reputation and the markets continue functioning. and then that is exactly what what what I see is the most important.

During this very difficult time the role of the IMF but bank and multilateral institution it’s going to be very critical. Because they can support us when we really need it when there is no else source of financing that we feel that it is justify that kind of financing. If we go to the market with such a very high price it will not justify in term of should you really spend the money for this kind of urgency or emergency. So this kind of situation that I think the design of the multilateral institution with all the instrument and the policy should be really really put in the context of global public goods or global public bed like this kind of Covid or climate change that will definitely require a certain mechanism, instrument and institution, global institution, who’s allowing us to complement first the market discipline instrument. But there it not always reliable with this kind of continuity. because managing economy and country you cannot say like okay we are going to take six months holiday. That is not the case. The country should go on so continue no matter what no matter how the volatile of the economy in the market. But we try to avoid those punishing behavior of the market as much as possible. And I think within that convex some policy warranted to be adopted. some time you really have the market and when market is not reliable the government intervention and control justify. But it’s not supposed to be substituting the market in the long run. So it’s supposed to be like a temporary credible intervention but then you have to then step back when the situation is getting back to the normal. I think that kind of flexibility by the government is really needed. But that requires a legislation and institutional arrangement within each country to be able to do and conduct those kind of on and off, and temporary, as well as then you are withdrawing in a such a way that is allowing this development process to continue in one country without the disruption coming from this kind of shock.


Thank you, thank you. So I do want to open it up to our audience now is that a huge amount there. And I come back to what I said at the beginning Sri Mulyani you have got one of the most difficult jobs in the world. because all of that is without being able to factor in how this is going to change the way people behave and I think what it’s going to do to labor markets. I mean I think there are huge numbers of jobs that will disappear and we’re going to have to invent new ones.

So Carmen, in that spirit, there is a question that wants to know: what shape the recovery is going to be on the basis of the information we have so far. Now I know there’s been a lot of talk. Is it a V ? Is it an L? is it W ? Is it U?  If you could answer that but also to talk a little bit about opportunities particularly for women and I was very struck by what Sri Mulyani was saying is you know the digitalization, revolution has been accelerated. Because I think when we’re looking at the recovery, whatever shape it is, we do need to make sure that we are taking as much advantage of this crisis as possible. What what do you think?


The shape of the recovery. I think there is a general tendency to confuse rebound with recovery. And I’ll be specific on what I mean. rebound after you have growth collapses, like what we’re registering in the first half of this year, you’re gonna have something a rebound on growth that looks oh that looks great it looks like a V. But that is actually misleading because if you were to look at the level of per capita income, it will take some years to get back to the pre-crisis level. In most cases in varies across countries, obviously. But if you look at the level of per capita income , you don’t get this superficial looking V-shaped recovery. So answer I think abstracting and again I highlighted that one of the things that makes this situation particularly worrisome from the economic standpoint it’s encompassing uncertainty. Because you don’t know how long it’s gonna last. You don’t know if the second wave is worse than the first,which was the case in the 1918 pandemic. you just don’t know it’s in some sense the disease is just in the driver’s seat until there is a vaccin. And so the best case scenario in my view, still involves a U.  You are gonna see things that snap back and you say aha that’s a beat. No. In most cases the unemployment will take a while to to settle back to pre-crisis , the per capita GDP will take a while . What is very troubling about the gender issue , like the poverty issue, is that this crisis is very very regressive. It has its greatest impact on the low income . Many women in many societies are clustered in that low income.  So that’s one dimension that I think the fact that it is a very unequal. At the end of this, we’re going to have a may a major setback to the, again, inequality. You know more in distribution that we had seen over the gradually very gradually over the last couple of decades. Another dimension where I am concerned about the setback for women and girls is and you hear this narrative from from Sub-Saharan Africa certainly and we saw a glimpse of and you alluded to the Ebola epidemic. You know children are being pulled out of school because of the pandemic. Not out not all those children’s return to school and the incidents of returning is appears to be much lower for girls than for boys. And we saw this during the Ebola pandemic yet another factor that is a source of concern is a lot of the gains in financial inclusion for women also came from very micro driven initiatives in terms of micro finance. I think for why we’re going to be seeing a credit crunch , even you I think governments and central banks are doing very much what they can but and the minister was alluding to this. there is also risk aversion you know that he aversion to making some of those riskier loans is something that we see again and again during crisis times so that those are real sources of setbacks and concerns for women in the post Covid era.


Thank you can I do that is a perfect segue. So there I’ve got low loads of questions which is I mean you know. What is the policy response to this regressive crisis and in Sri Mulyani? I mean with all your experience of Financial Inclusion and reaching you know particularly the poorest within .what what can government do because I think Carmen’s right. I mean all the progress that we’ve made on girls education later marriage one thing and other risks in reversed and the gift that overlain on all of this is a domestic violence spike as well,  which is really going going through the roof . so we know this, we see it happening we know women and girls are going to be hardest hit , we have a an enormous array of policies and programs . What do we do to push this to the top of the agenda and my guess is that the answer will have as much to do with politics as economics .


Yeah well as I said a thing but for many politicians they also realize that this Covid hit directly to the people. So in terms of their asking for the government or support for the government for the political party to support government to do an extra ordinary intervention, I think more or less relatively there. so we are not having a constraint in terms of the urgency and the demand for us to actually intervene or designing a policy. The challenge is more on how in this very shot and emergency situation you are going to be able to design the good policy . That is always like the trade-off between speed and the fast response with your ability. and especially when the country doesn’t have it the necessary condition of for example like the system in place for the heath, for the education, for the social safety net. For example in Indonesia, you have the by-name and address of the poor people in Indonesia. We have the 40% bottom by-name by-address. This is 29 million household, but they are not updated up to the recent situation, especially when they are hit by the Covid. There will be like new poor, which is not going to be included in this database. So when you are expanding your social safety map, I mean I said earlier the technology helping a lot, because you can easily digitize and you are actually transferring through the Bank, Indonesia is an archipelago country. We still have a remote areas. Luckily, the Covid, actually the word luckily is not appropriate, the Covid hit mostly in a big city like capital city of Jakarta. So in this case, the social safety net can be done through our transfer directly through the payment system digital. And the role of Fintech in indonesia has been increased very dramatically, so that is all the case in which view you have this technology and the system that is allowing you to respond. but when you talk about targeting, you may be still have the inclusion exclusion error because of first updating of the data and well and then also the Covid creating a new poor which is not capture in the existing database. so that is one thing and it is the challenge. and the second one is of course for for us to actually try to find even if you are not in an ideal case what else you can do in order for you to reach especially the most vulnerable, the poor and the most vulnerable. For Indonesia we find that providing subsidy or even electricity bill for the lowest household is the most effective one. this the one more than724 million household who actually register on the electricity bill at the lowest level that they actually only have 450 VA per month the capacity. this we put them totally free electricity for six months . That’s helped them a lot. so we try to find how and what is the best way to reach the bottom 20% or bottom 40%. knowing that maybe it’s not what you call it perfect, but at least we we tried to cover from many different form. in addition to that, we also converted some of the existing policy . For example we have what we call it Village Fund Transfer to each village in Indonesia . we have 75 thousands of  villages in Indonesia , so we said that one-third of this Village fund should be converted to become social safety net so Direct Subsidy to the poorest hard-hit. this is because for Indonesia those who unemployed usually go back to their village then they work temporarily in a city and when the city closed locked down then they go back to their village and that’s why we provide safety net on a village level. So what I’m saying is that we try to use all the policy and instrument available that is allowing us to respond in a very short time. and that is very very critical to do that. So I think that’s what the country needed. Ideally and that’s why as I said earlier this crisis triggered the need for reform .

And that’s why we said that we should not waste this crisis. We use this to trigger the reform in a health sector in education social safety net including accuracy of the data and how we are going to prepare. In terms of the recovery as Cameron mentioned and I also and mentioned earlier. Because of this uncertainty what we should do is just preparing for a longer period of uncertainty. Carmen mentioned about the risk-averse and that’s exactly what is happening. Like this time to jump start again how the bank after they restructure the loan and the company or the corporation or even small medium enterprises after they are restructured they both don’t want to restore the working capital again. they just want to wait until all the restructuring process finish and that mean can be six months eight nine months one year.  so you can imagine Susana that if you wait for six to twelve months meaning that the economy is just like going down. there is no credit. now if I ask what is going to be the credit growth. we used to have like 12% prayed for years down to nine. now what I have is only three or four percent that’s lucky enough that you still have the positive growth of a credit and that is maybe on the area which is related to the health activity and food and beverages which is still actually moving. But other I think they just stop. so now the government is trying to do introducing what you call it risk management or insurance for the new working capital loan so that the bank feels safe to lend again and the company they are going to like feel protected because the government will pay them the insurance of the first loss of their working capital. so we put budget dedicated for this kind of insurance for the new working capital . Because we don’t want them to like just stop only under restructuring . On the woman I think this is very important for for us because as Carmen also mentioned that so it really hit hard especially the poorest and the woman. and you mentioned about domestic violence we also heard from the ministry of women affair,  this case is actually escalating when people are only at home and especially for many poor area that they are in the poor housing, then the domestic violence is going to be one of the biggest challenge that we have to face. At least from the economic point of view what we tried to do is try to help as I said earlier the government immediately during this situation dedicate the restructuring and support for the ultra microcredit, which is 80 percent the borrower, our woman we have more than 8.2 million women borrowing and they actually the one who do the very basic activity economic activity. we said to them that you don’t have to pay your principal or even in this case all the interest rate will be like paid by the government. We still thinking and this moment should we have more by providing additional capital to them because they are the one who actually still maintaining maybe a certain basic transaction among people whether this is in the village, rural area are among the informal sector we just now start moving again . Wo we are continuing our policy we will look at where the area that we actually can do more to help especially the most vulnerable that is the people the poor people as far as the woman .


Thank you very much. I mean what what I take away from this is you know there are so many systems that were put in place for other things I mean social safety nets or digitization and actually the key is to use those existing systems in innovative flexible ways,  in order to get a quick response out there. and that I’m you know there’s a huge amount being tried tested probably some things going wrong and and we need to make sure that we’re sharing these less in in real-time because everybody I think is struggling with this, you know, very complex and challenging time. So I’m going to have to draw this to a close very soon because I know everybody has a day or an evening. I had one last quick question for both of you what and let me start with Carmen. I mean what’s the single most important lesson you’ve learned from from this crisis in two minutes or one minute .


Literally one minute? I think that neglected problems always come back to haunt you and I think one area where the world at large advanced emerging and the idea of preparation for a global pandemic was something that had gone out and so I think a legacy of this is going to be, you know, a focus on resilience and resilience on the really core health and food that perhaps I think got waylaid along the way. Thank you.


Thank you. What about you Sri Mulyani?


I think when the sunshine, you have to fix your roof. So basically you really do the counter-cyclical. When situation is actually happy, everybody’s partying. This is the real work for you to strengthen your fundamentals. So that you are always sure that when the next crisis happened, you have the buffer, you have the space and you have the capacity to deal with. I mean that’s happened in a fiscal side, monetary side , on a social safety net, in many other area. So basically don’t waste when situation is good. That means you have to work harder, so that when situation is not good, then you also have to work harder, but at least you are starting in a much better situation.


Thank you, thank you very much. So if I may take your two lessons and combine them, put solar panels on your roof and don’t think that climate change is not coming down the track very very fast. we haven’t talked about that at all maybe another time. this has been a hugely stimulating conversation such rich experience on both sides And I think you know seeing Sri Mulyani with your own to-do list on the one hand and then Carmen trying to get the bank to be as helpful as possible has given our 200 plus participants a lot of insights into how difficult this is but also just how hard people like you are working to try and come up with innovative creative solutions and especially for women and girls. Great to see you both thank you very much indeed and thank you to our participants . Let’s close it there . Enjoy the evening or morning depending on you running time. Thank you.

So now, capek bacanya? Iya lah, apalagi saya yang ngutak-atik kompie dari semalam. Banyak typo kali ya, entar deh kapan2 saya benerin lagi. Semoga bermanfaat. See ya…

Summary of Rebirthing the Global Economy

Semalam menyaksikan sesi diskusi panel antar leaders dan women economists yang diselenggarakan oleh United Nations mengambil topik United Nations (UN) Rountable “Rebirthing the Global Economy to Deliver Sustainable Developmen” dan sekarang saya membuatkan summary buat yang tidak sempat mengikuti. Sepertinya buanyaak ya…tapi memang sesinya lebih dari 2 jam ya saudara. …sorry saya masih suka pakai English terms in some parts, kelamaan kalau saya tulis Indonesianya. Okay…Here we go….

SG Antonio Guteres Opening remarksHE Sri Mulyani Indrawati Opening Remarks
1- Saya menyambut baik Women Leaders’ and economists talk ini
2- Resesi gobal dan Covid 19 menyebabkan immense human suffering di seluruh dunia. Perlu act now agar depressed & disrupted economic growth tidak berkepanjangan yg berdampak pada extreme poverty, hunger, rusaknya healthcare systems, dan education for children terbengkalai.
3- Pandemi mengancam Agenda SDG 2030, tapi untuk reverse progress SDG PBB sudah menetapkan rescue package 10 % dari global economy. Utk negara2 maju  bisa pakai own resources atau printing money tetapi developing countries butuh paket2 tsb utk menyelamatkan ekonomi. 
4- Hasil diskusi degn PM Jamaica dan Canada — mengatur pertemuan “Financing Sustainable Development” dengan global leaders utk mengidentifikasi how to finance the recovery dan to build back better.
5- Dari perwakilan 50 negara (governments, international financial institutions, United Nations agencies, private sector creditors dll ) membahas opsi2 utk menghadapi key challenges from global liquidity and debt vulnerability untuk better recovery
6- PBB butuh solusi konkrit, radikal dan solusi implementable sebagai comprehensive global response. Ini human crisis yg telah berkembang menjadi  krisis development and financing. Developing countries membengkak kebutuhan public spending sementara tax, export revenues, inward investments dan remittances terjun bebas. Efeknya bisa jd painfully slow global recovery.
7- Dunia alami widespread debt crisis, antara bayar debt atau protecting  communities and fighting the pandemic serta tidak punya akses ke financial markets . G20 sudah memulai debt service suspension bagi poorest countries dan supportnya harus berdasarkan vulnerability daripada GDP.  
8- PBB mulai memikirkan durable solutions on debt yang menyediakan fiscal space bagi investments in recovery dan SDGs.
9- Selain dampak fiskal tadi, COVID-19 crisis berpengaruh pada external finance yaitu direct investment, exports dan remittances. Pandemi mendisrupsi supply chains and trade, maka akan berbahaya jika manufacturing dipindahkan ke developed countries, karena akan mengurangi resources bagi developing countries .
10- Hanya ada 10 % dari global leaders adalah wanita , PBB mengapresiasi decisive dan effective responses dari panelis diskusi agar mendapat insights and perspectives dari semua sehingga mendapat jawaban yang inclusive, resilient and gender-equal .
1. Seperti menurut Secretary General: dampak pandemi pada sosial dan ekonomi global sangat signifikan, ekonomi memasuki resesi bahkan depression. Indonesia loosening progress yang sudah dilakukan 30 thn terakhir yaitu penurunan kemiskinan i.e. shared propserity mundur sekitar 5 tahun dalam 6 bulan pertama pandemi.
2. Dari sudut pandang SDG, pandemi berdampak pada people, propserity, dan partnership.
3. Bagaimana Indonesia rebuild atau rebirthing ekonomi:
* Resource of financing untuk mencapai SDG tertunda, tax revenue menurun, kebutuhan spending untuk health, social safety net dan economy naik dramatis. Awalnya budget 2020 akan digunakan 1,7% untuk GDP deficit. Tetapi karena Covid 19 maka APBN direvisi dengan defisit hingga 6.7%.
* Bagaimana arange finance dengan defisit yang membesar? Indo masih beruntung karena punya lower debt to GDP ratio pada sekitar 30%, naiknya sekitar menjadi 37% ratio. Source of financing bisa dari dari past saving, multilateral institutions yang membantu dalam isu kesehatan dan social safety net, other lendings from global financial institutions.
* Concern ibu SMI adalah pada negara2 yang mengalami diskriminasi terhadap equal opportunity untuk catch up dan mengatasi pandemic-related issues dengan cara yang yang lebih accountable.
* Akses dan prices sangat critical, bagaimana dengan hutang bagi negara2 dengan limited access dan mengalami high price bisa memiliki growth di bawah interest rate mereka?
* Saran: 1/ countries harus mengejar more ambitious reform, misal untuk education, health, social safety net, atau quality of spending. Contoh di Indo, kita meningkatkan belanja dengan mendisain policy yang ambisius, didukung dengan sistem (edukasi/kesehatan) yang lebih baik maka terjadi quality of spending. 2/Investasi di IT: forcing WFH dan SFH dengan peranan infrastruktur digital mengubah country lebih go virtual untuk akses dan pelaksanaan business. 3/apakah global financial architect responding well dengan fiscal deficit di berbagai negara? Bagaimana dengan non-performing loan, jangan sampai menjadi krisis eknonomi dan finansial dunia in the next decade. Harus ada best policy response, misalnya relaxing supaya negara bisa merestrukturisasi prudential regulasi untuk bank dan perusahaan dalam melakukan adjustment.
4. Pandemi ini menyerang masyarakat segmen non-traditional, yaitu grass-root people juga. Sektor informal, SME, kaum miskin dan wanita, karena itu dalam mendesain rebirthing economy kita harus memperhatikan mereka yang excluded dari benefit government policy serta dari sisi gender (peranan wanita). Di Indonesia fase pertama restructuring dari pandemi digunakan untuk semua wanita/SME yang menerima subsidi dan restrukturisasi hutang supaya survive. Perlu sharing dari other economists around the world. 
UN Deputy SG Amina Mohamed opening remarksManaging Director IMF Kristalina Georgieva video remarks
1. kita membahas new global economy in di mana finance menjadi sarana (bukan tujuan) yg menyeimbangkan kepentingan people dlm hal trade, debt vulnerability serta external finance. Mengutip artikel majalah, kita “revolutionizing their field”, “flipping priorities” and “challenging outdated models and measures” bersama para wanita yang memiliki ability and credibility utk mengubah dunia
2. kami membutuhkan insights saudara untuk memahami the value chains of the future yang lebih sustainable dan fair, serta argumen yang meyakinkan private creditors serta rating agencies utk mempertimbangkan tugas mereka dengan wider perspective hingga ke societal effects.
3. External finance perlu berubah, dibutuhkan partnership dengan financial markets mengubah the balance dan mencapai SDGs karena investasi tidak boleh hanya ttg profit at any cost tetapi juga harus benar.
4. dengan rebirthing, kita atasi inequality dan environmental degradation.  The new global economy harus berdasarkan consumption dan production yg sustainable, infrastruktur yg menjamin akses pd opportunities bagi semua.
5. Kita perlu mentransformasi lembaga— private dan public — yg menjamin demokrasi dan markets yg accountable to all people, serta menciptakan  partnerships yg green, lebih inklusif, serta fairer response and recovery. Tantangannya adalah geopolitis, technologi and intergenerational shifts. Belum ada modelnya. Globalization dan liberal markets sdh jd paradigma yg gagal, kita perlu  menciptakan  model yg mengutamakan people dan planet kita bagi  the next generations.
6. Pandemi, inequality akut, climate change, demographic shifts, civic space yg menyusut, hilangnya privacy, kota besar tidak memandang digitalized and robotized economy maupun traditional jobs.  Dan ini adalah tragedi. Pemulihan kembali ekonomi global adalah kesempatan untuk memberdayakan mereka untuk menghadapi tantangan yg makin besar.
1. krisis yang luar biasa butuh respons yang luar biasa. Intinya bagaimana kami invest yg mendorong strong growth, creating jobs, low carbon, climate resilience, masyarakat yg lebih inklusif dan equitable, dan membangun better future. 
President ECB Christine Lagarde remarks:
1. The worst is behind us secara makroekonomi. Recovery bisa jadi uncertain, uneven, membutuhkan patience, berdampak pada meningkatnya debts, inequality, dan unemployment, vulnerability jadi meningkat.
2. Dibutuhkan kerja keras semua (policies & tools) dlm situasi kritis ini coz harus transformasional, proximity, digital, green, sustainable, full of solidarity.
3. Saatnya gunakan rational intelligence & emotional intelligence dlm membuat model untuk addressing the challenges 
Bahasan Tentang External Finance
Prof. Mariana Mazzucato (UCL)Leila Fourie (JSE) Afrika Selatan
1. Perlu diketahui bahwa tidak pernah ada lack of finance, tp apa yg dilakukan finance dan kemana finance dihabiskan. Dlm krisis finansial triliunan dollar dikucurkan dlm sistem berakhir mostly kembali lagi ke dlm financial system, hanya sedikit yg dipakai utk real economy, sisanya masuk ke finance insurance real estate (FIRE). Bagaimana kami yakin jika bank sentral fokuskan alokasi ke kredit daripada untuk likuiditas?
2. Lalu type of finance jg jd masalah baik di negara maju dan berkembang. Banyak pembiayaan impatience pdhal yg diperlukan utk mempercepat development, innovation, dan investment-led growth adalah pembiayaan yg patient, long-term (umumnya oleh institusi perbankan yg berbeda jenisnya)
3. Development banking institutions tadi menghilangkan peluang untuk menciptakan conditionality yg lebih kuat, jika kita ingin serius dalam SDG kerjakan 169 ambitious goals belakangan. Pemerintah dan berbagai lembaga keuangan transnational perlu sediakan pembiayaan tersebut. (dia sebut contoh di Denmark, Perancis, USA)
4. Perlu memikirkan aligning cara financing kita dengan industrional strategy yg lebih transformasional (lintas sektor) dengan menetapkan condition untuk mendapatkan funds dari government –> stakeholder governance capitalism yg condition-driven
1. Afsel hadapi krisis eksistensial dlm emerging market karena climate change tetapi tidak punya problem dengan availability of funds, tapi pd how to allocate funds. 
2. Afsel perlu memahami konsep sustainable development dan kaitannya dengan international finance sbg bagian integral dari recovery ekonomi yg menentukan sustainability dan masa depan emerging markets.
3. Kompleksitas yg dihadapi emerging markets ada 3 level yg membatasi kemampuan mereka dalam memenuhi SDGs: 1/ cost of debt servicing  2/ exchange rate volatility  3/compounding effects of growth challenges
Krisis yg terjadi saat ini berada di atas krisis perubahan lingkungan ekonomi sbg akibat dari GFC. Pemerintah Afsel berangkat dari tidak ada  stimulus fiskal dan moneter untuk menghindari resesi berulang sehingga berakibat meningkatnya public debt thd rasio GDP. Ketika tingkat bunga mencapai nol, pemerintah menggunakan kemudahan kuantitatif dgn harapan agar lembaga keuangan mendistribusikan likuiditas untuk menjaga ekonomi berjalan. Ini cukup membantu . Tetapi karena mengahadapi bull market dan terjadi dislokasi uang dari ekonomi riil, S&P naik 5x lipat dekade terakhir, distribusi likuiditas tidak merata, dan recovery yg terjadi menyelesaikan masalah yg dihadapi masyarakat umum tapi tidak mengurangi kesulitan hidup dan emerging markets. Krn suku bunga tetap rendah dan ekonomi membaik menekan kenaikan debt servicing cost, ekonomi yang membaik menguntungkan para beneficiaries dan bukan emerging markets.
5. Intinya emerging market mengalami debt servicing cost yang sangat tinggi, exchange rate yang lebih tinggi, dan berakibat pada low growth. Bagaimana Afsel menciptakan sustained growth dan menyelesaikan inequality di antara emerging mareket countries at the developed growth agar tidak tertinggal?
Antoinette Sayeh (IMF Deputy Managing Director) from LiberiaProf. Naela Kabeer (LSE)
1. Availability of financing saja tidak cukup, ke mana uang dialokasikan juga penting.
2. Poor countries mengalami multiple shocks: pandemi, contracted global demand, harga commodity trade menurun, tourism explosion, remitens menurun dll mengurangi kemampuan own financing dan membutuhkan external financing. IMF ada dana tersebut tanpa conditionality US$25 billion kepada 72 countries terutama utk penanganan health crisis dan bertahan hidup. Countries diharapkan berkomitmen dengan auditing dan reporting yg baik.
3. Economic repair tentu butuh waktu, proyeksi growth oleh IMF thn 2020-2021 membutuhkan repair yang panjang, sangat rumit maka financing poor countries tetap dilanjutkan. Debt relief inisiatif dari G20 tetap dilanjutkan, kreditor swasta harus berkontribusi.
4. Kita semua harus berkontribusi utk build back better. Telah disediakan dana utk emergency financing (phase 1) & akan disiapkan utk recovery financing (phase 2).
Menjawab conditionality dikaitkan dengan isu sustainability dan inclusive growth:
1. Tidak yakin dengan seberapa jauh bisa diterapkan tapi conditionality seharusnya terjadi, tapi ide memberikan sangat banyak uang kepada masyarakat dengan akuntabilitas terhadap masyarakat yang lebih luas lagi perlu ditinggalkan
2. Di Inggris, paket stimulus yg diumumkan selalu tentang “building” infrastruktur fisik. Ini jadi bahan fokus pembicaraan feminist economists: intensitas tenaga kerja, intesitas pekerjaan, dan efek multiplier dari investasi terhadap masyarakat. Saat krisis menyentuh kapabilitas manusia scr fundamental, kita perlu membangun untuk masa depan, bukan hanya agar keluar dari krisis tapi supaya bisa resilien.
3. Ini tidak harus digambarkan sebagai conditionality tapi lebih sebagai penekanan pada menciptakan pekerjaan yg mendukung kesehatan, pendidikan, keterampilan dll karena infrastruktur seperti itu yg dibutuhkan ekonomi jika harus menghadapi krisis di masa depan
4. Saya tidak mengabaikan ide ttg stimulus tapi kita harus melihat jauh kepada grassroots: apakah key assets yang menjadi mata pencaharian mereka, yaitu human capabilities
6. Jangan cari solusi gaya lama, coba berinvestasi pada people’s skills, health dll.
Vera Songwe (ES UN Economic Commission for Africa)Prof. Stephanie Kelton (SBU)
Menjawab ttg debt dan international trade:
1. Arah perginya resources: mulai membangun ekonomi yang creating real value (vs creating paper value/nilai fiktif spt asuransi dan real estate), IMF belum lakukan itu dalam 10 thn terakhir. E.g. agriculture: Debt tidak akan create value pada aset supaya bisa dijual lagi sedangkan trade & kapasitas produktif tidak meningkat standarnya. Jadi kaitkan financing dengan layanan yang dihasilkan.
2. Diversifikasi ekonomi. Tidak akan mulai dibahas jika hanya membicarakan financing saja. Conditionaly harus pada apa yang kita produksi. Saya menentang safety nets karena hanya menjadi huge transfer ke negara berkembang tapi tidak membuat mereka produktif dan tetap membuat mereka miskin seperti di Afrika.  
Menanggapi Vera Songwe:
1. Sepakat. Selama ini kita membantu negara berkembang melalui sarana expor supaya mereka menghasilkan dollar US kepada kreditor sebagai balasan pada hutang abadi. Seharusnya kita membantu mereka supaya keluar dari status sbg negara berkembang.
2. USA sbg global leader harus punya peranan penting dalam menciptakan dan mentransformasi trade arrangements dgn cara menetapkan standar misal standar ekologi lebih ketat, proteksi kuat angkatan kerja, berbagi green technologies dan kekayaan intelektual, membangun keamanan pangan, kesehatan dan energi, agar mereka tidak tergantung pada impor.
3. Harus ada komitmen financial dan non-financial dari negara maju.
Caroline Freund (WB Director)Bogolo Kenewendo (Bostwana)
1. Makin banyak negara yang mengalami resesi bahkan sejak 1870. WB menyumbang bagi resesi itu dengan external financing project 160 juta US$ dlm 15 bulan. Ini kecil jika dibandingkan dengan jumlah uang triliunan $ ke negara maju.
2. Bantuan WB dibelanjakan untuk kesehatan dan rekstrukturisasi masyarakat (SOE dan SME & lapangan kerja yg hilang). Jadi WB sangat membutuhkan reformasi supaya ada recovery dari trade (ttg investasi, bisnis)
3. Bahaya saat ini yaitu limited global cooperation saat terjadi krisis keuangan global
4. WB belum bisa menaikkan pajak korporasi. Agar negara2 dapat meningkatkan resourcesnya butuh kerjasama pajak, kerjasama trade dll.
Tentang TIK dan digital cooperation
1. Covid 19 memaksa dunia untuk memikirkan new world dan new normal dengan digitalization.
2. Digitalization memudahkan service delivery dan transformasi ekonomi
3. Terkait Inclusive digital economy: budget utk TIK (4%)  dan ICT policy-making (1%) terlalu kecil untuk building back stronger coz butuh infrastruktur digital.
4. Terkait domestic financing: banyak likuiditas misal di Bostwana dan Ghana, kami melihat capital flight karena pemerintah tidak memanfaatkan domestic capital. Ini karena masalah kapasitas melakukannya secara terstruktur dan masuk akal untuk membangun ekonomi lokal. Karena itu SME development dan proteksi resiliens sektor informal kami jadi kunci penting dalam SDG. 
Kate Raworth (Oxford)
Tentang doughnut economy (DE), debt dan trade
1. DE: tujuannya tidak ada orang yang kekurangan satu pun  dari 12 essential needs of life dan juga tidak melampaui support system kehidupan di planet. Yang penting dalam abad 21 adalah balance.
2. Terkait finance: kita mewarisi sistem finance abad 20 bahkan abad 15, yang didasarkan pada idea bahwa finance akan kembali dalam bentuk finacial return yang terus terakumulasi tanpa akhir. 3. Humanity dan kesehatan planet harus ada keseimbangan. Ada kontradiksi fundamental di sini. Kita tidak dapat redesign sistem iklim dan bumi jika rusak, tapi financial system bisa didesain ulang. Kita harus rebirth finance menjadi in service to humanity and planet.
Bahasan Tentang Debt
Minouche Shafik (LSE)Prof. Stephanie Kelton (SBU)
Tentang debt restructuring
1. Keadaan ekonomi telah mengubah ecomic rules karena debt accumulation untuk penanganan krisis. Negara dgn eknomomi pakai physical measures hutangnya bisa naik 10-20% karena volume belanja yg belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya dan negara berkembang tidak punya kapasitas itu. Karenanya perlu debt moratorium, debt relief, tambahan IMF resources selain alokasi SDR tambahan sebagai cara tercepat bagi menkeu poor countries untuk dapat uang.
2. Menurut saya cash tranfer adalah sebagian solusi jangka pendek, saya pelajari 80an laporan cash tranfsfer scheme di seluruh dunia.
3. Cash transfer diberikan dlm bentuk asset transfer juga menjadi solusi. (contoh scheme di Bangladesh)
4. Ada 3 cara agar countries bisa bayar hutang: 1/ austerity (penghematan) 2/ growth 3/ represi finasial dan banyak negara melakukan kombinasi 3 cara tadi
5. Cara terbaik adalah growth bagi negara berkembang. Karena menurut pnegalaman analisis debt sustainability di IMF, 0.5% poin GDP adalah transformatif, meningkatkan sedikit growth membuat level of debt sustainability naik. Maka kuncinya gunakan accumulated debt untuk investasi produktif agar keluar dari hutang.  
Menanggapi perlunya rewiriting debt rules:
1. Transfer lebih baik dari pada loans. Hindari menjebak negara dengan hutang dan debt service tidak berkesudahan dan membuat mereka tidak bisa fully-developed.
2. Ada negara berkembang yang punya kapasitas fiskal yang lebih. Semakin negara tergantung pada critical imports (energi, food, medicine, technology) semakin dia tidak bisa keluar dari jeratan pinjaman foreign currency, suku bunga naik, hutang lagi ke IMF dst. Dia bisa pilih growth atau hutang melambung.
3. Kita menghadapi common enemy, butuh sesuatu mirip Marshal Plan yaitu negara2 yang kuat dan maju menyediakan aid dan assistance bagi negara lain. Kita jangan hidup dengan pembagian developed dan developing countries lagi. Jangan lagi negara berkembang tetap seperti itu selama 30 tahun..  
Prof. Mariana Mazzucato (UCL)Kate Raworth (Oxford)
1. Ketika membicarakan public debt sebenarnya yang terjadi adalah hutang swasta, maka itulah sumber krisis finansialnya. Contohnya debt relief  dari private debt di Inggris bukan relief tapi hanya penundaan pembayaran mortgage, menyebabkan krisis krn upah tidak naik, masyarakat berhutang untuk hidup, dll.
2. Contoh lain di Italia GDP naik karena denominator tidak naik dan karena belum belanja dan investasi di area stategis (human capital, pendidkan fromal, R&D) sebagai pendorong growth jangka panjang. Tetap ada krisis di Eropa yg sudah ada conditionality in investing untuk menurunkan defisit.
1. Jika membicarakan financial debt selalu tentang poor countries berhutang pada rich countries.
2. Ada hutang lain yaitu ecological debt. Semua negara maju merusak planet, iklim dan sistem ekologi kita. Itu hutang mereka pada negara miskin karena merusak prospek kemajuan mereka.
3. High income countries melalui lembaga era kolonial semacam WB yg didominasi USA menentukan apakah financial debt bisa diberikan dengan voting, sedangkan yang berdampak pada ecological debt mereka boleh voluntary contributions dengan Paris Agreement. Ini abad 21, kita harus dekolonisasi lembaga pembangunan, kita harus seimbangkan financial debt dan ecological debt antar negara.
4. High income countries jangan melampaui planetary boundaries dan transfer resources pd lower income countries agar mereka bisa mengembangkan own sources of wealth.
Prof. Naela Kabeer (LSE)Vera Songwe (ES UN Economic Commission for Africa)
1. Yg disampaikan Kate sangat fundamental. Kita selama ini fokus pada sisi finansial dan belum menyadari perubahan yang terjadi.
2. Diskusi Minouche dengan Vera tadi ada ketakutan bahwa kita di masa depan tetap berlanjut dengan batasan sosial dan ekonomi. Saya setuju dengan saftey net menurut Vera, kita perlu gambaran social policy yang lebih besar daripada safety net. Aset transfer menurut Manouche di Bangladesh sangat menggambarkan maksud saya bahwa aset transfer diikuti dengan investasi pada kapasitas dan keterampilan manusia dengan aset ekonomi mereka sendiri.
3. Kita harus terus melihat hubungan antara ekonomi dan sosial, concern saya adalah what social policy can do agar recovery ini lebih sustainable.
Terkait international trade.
1. Tgl 11 Juni Apple dapat 1.5T dollar dari critical inputnya yaitu cotton. 80% cotton diproduksi di DRC/Congo yg mengalami krisis hutang dan sulit melunasinya, dijual 40-80$ tapi di market dijual 400$.–> The new trade environment yaitu menghilangkan semua perantara antara original product dengan end product.
2. Saat ikuti internet fair antara women agriculture di Rwanda dengan China electronic world trade platform, kurang dari 1 menit kita dapat menjual 1.5 ton kopi Rwanda seharga 12$/pack (8$ jika pakai perantara).
3. Dampak positif dari crisis yaitu Rwanda dapat menjual 30,000 USD dalam 10 menit.
3. Shoutout kepada WTO untuk mereview fungsi intermediary, terutama bagi Africa yang sangat painful dgn CAFTA. Globalisasi dan global trade itu penting tapi ciptakan longer supply chain dan value addition bagi Africa sebelum kita bertukar barang. Seperti kasus cotton, dari 40$ itu dikirim ke China, Malaysia, dll untuk diproses, Africa tidak melihat valued dari komoditasnya.
4. Africa tidak bisa membuat sarung tangan harus impor plastik dan 54 negara menutup pasar mereka. Hutang bengkak karena harus beli gloves, padahal 60% karet dunia dihasilkan Africa. Daripada memberi kami saftey net, beri kami pabrik gloves, para wanita akan bekerja, kita ciptakan lapangan kerja, memasukkan teknologi dan transfer capacity. Inti: redefine safety nets ke dalam productive process.
Caroline Freund (WB Director)Bogolo Kenewendo (Bostwana)
1. Supply chain digitalization bagi perusahaan sangat membantu memotong perantara trade. Masalahnya adalah kekuatan monopoli dari buyers seperti kasus Apple yang bisa menegosiasi dengan suppliers karena punya 80% pasar dunia. Teknologi meningkatkan services in trade saat ini.  Sekitar April 20% penurunan trade dilihat dari shipping data, tetapi sudah naik lagi bulan Mei.
2. Menanggapi Stephanie tentang stagnannya negara berkembang selama berdekade, ingat bahwa periode 1990-2008 adalah periode convergensi, di mana negara berkembang tumbuh lebih cepat dari negara maju karena mereka berintegrasi dengan world economy, jadi trade benar2 menawarkan jalur ke development jika kita bisa re-energize trade. Dengan trade terjadi cooperation menghapuskan intermediary, bernegosiasi dengan multinationals, menangani isu2 yang merusak sistem trade (subsidi dll), mulai memikirkan new economy, semua itu butuh kerja sama.
1. Tahun lalu kita berkepentingan dengan multilateral trading system menghadapi perang dagang antara US dan China. Tahun ini kita melihat lebih banyak kebijakan proteksionis sebagai respons Covid-19.
2. Tantangan pertama, kebijakan proteksionis dapat membahayakan negara berpendapatan rendah atau berkembang, pendekatan “mengemis tetangga” hanyalah semasa krisis.Seharusnya ada agreement sekarang (seperti dgn OECD 2009-2010 lalu) bahwa tidak akan memaksakan kebijakan proteksionis bagi trade dan investasi
3. Terkait lingkup multilateral kami ingin WTO agar melakukan reformasi
4. Terkait lingkup micro trading, saat ini SME sektor informal kami punya peran penting. Trader Africa paling banyak adalah wanita yg melakukan cross-border tradings. Cash tranfer kepada SME dan sektor informal sangat dibutuhkan pasca Covid-19 ini.
Terkait solusi/ inovasi/ closing remarks
Prof. Stephanie Kelton (SBU)Prof. Mariana Mazzucato (UCL)
1. Export adalah real cost dan import adalah real benefit. Membicarakan contoh Vera, ketika Anda tidak bisa mendapat rubber gloves maka export karet dia adalah real cost, bukan berarti bahwa trade tidak menguntungkan, tidak ada gain dan profit bagi negara, tapi apakah Anda mengorientasikan ekonomi anda pada produksi untuk ekspor agar punya pendapatan yang akan anda gunakan untuk membayar hutang. 2. Jika membicarakan saftey net dan transfers, yang dipahami Vera adalah safety net bagi kreditor. Safety net ada untuk menjamin dollar terus mengalir dan didaur ulang dan kembali kepada kreditor.Isu utama adalah bagaimana kita mengatur trade. Salah kelola trade selama ini terkait health care dan health care products. Hak kekayaan intelektual disalahgunakan (misal vaksin)
2. Saat kita bicara public investment dan kita tidak bisa mengaturnya untuk mencapai inclusive dan sustainable growth maka menjadi kegagalan masif.
3. Adam Smith’s teori tentang free market, yang dia maksud free di sini adalah bebas dari rent, intermediation yang kita bicarakan dari tadi adalah bentuk rent/pinjaman.
Minouche Shafik (LSE)Leila Fourie (JSE) Afrika Selatan
1. Saya khawatir jika advanced economies lebih menekankan manufacturing activity dengan akibat automation dan concern pada supply chain, itu tidak akan baik bagi developing countries. Karena mereka akan meyakinkan production facilities pada home market, akan memproduksi di home market, tapi juga mengekspor hasilnya ke seluruh dunia. Jadi labor cost menjadi bagian kecil dari auction cost yang bisa mereka penuhi di pasar mereka sendiri dan akhirnya growth opportunity negara berkembang jadi hilang.
2. Perlu dipikirkan lagi pola trade dan supply chain yang tidak mengerdilkan negara berkembang.
1. Globalisasi yang kita lihat adalah akibat dari Trump dan hubungan USA-China. Penting untuk menjamin bahwa ada multilateral agreement untuk melindungi developing world, dan African FTA merupakan satu langkah ke arah itu. Kita butuh lebih banyak lagi.
Prof. Naela Kabeer (LSE)Kate Raworth (Oxford)
1. Cross-border trade di Africa dan women dual-value chain di Bangladesh ada kesamaannya yaitu violence. Saat memikirkan kebijakan ekonomi, kita harus beri pertimbangan lebih kepada governance dan rule of law, sehingga siapapun yang terlibat dalam trade tidak akan menderita.1. Kita memiliki global supply chain yang begitu centralized dan monopolized, banyak perusahaan seperti Apple mendapat banyak global value dan hasilnya melahirkan banyak milyuner baru.
2. Kita perlu mengubahnya menjadi distributed global supply chains, jadi kita perlu ekonomi circular di mana resources berputar secara lokal dan ide2 bergerak global untuk menghubungkan local ability untuk menghasilkan distributed communication systems dengan global networks sehingga menghentikan centralization oleh segelintir orang. 
Wrap Up
Dr. Ngozi Ogonjo Iweala (Nigeria)Alicia Barcena (ECLAC Executive Secretary)
1. Common threat: isu vulnerability masyarakat dan kita berkumpul untuk membahas  bagaimana mendukung countries memenuhi SDGs dan mencapai Agenda 2030.
2. Injustice, inequality dan imbalance sudah terjadi sebelum Covid 19. Covid memperburuknya tapi membuat kita interconnected. Kita butuh cooperation dan bekerja dengan solidaritas untuk keluar dari masalah.
3. Isu finance untuk membantu poor countries sebenarnya bukan isu finansial tapi masalah keadilan. Trade harus dilakukan to make better masyarakat terbawah di negara2 miskin. Beri kesempatan negara mengembangkan value chains sendiri.
3. Inovasi harus memikirkan tentang people, planet, create value in own country, sehingga kita bisa membicarakan sustainability dan kenaikan standar hidup negara. 
1. Membangun kembali ekonomi global dari kacamata inclusion dan sustainability, wanita adalah aktor utama how to build back better untuk sutainability dan equality.
2. Negara miskin dan negara berkembang  banyak mengalami inequalities dan stuctural deficiencies
3. Kita perlu setuju secara internasional kunci utama: digital over physical; solidarity as priority
4. Krisis saat ini sangat sistemik, tidak bisa ditangani kasus per kasus seperti maunya private creditors. Perlu redefinisikan struktur finansial internasional. Directing of finance, kaitkan pembiayaan dengan kebijakan industri dengan good conditionalities.
5. Cash tranfer juga penting. Investasikan pada grassroot economy.
5. Perlu transformasi lembaga2, memperluas partnership, mengutamakan multilateral institutions
6. Perlu punya mekanisme trade yang lebih adil bagi WTO agar ada trade dengan real value.
Co-Convenor HE Sri Mulyani Indrawati (MOF Indonesia)UN Deputy SG Amina Mohamed
1. Kita masih mengidentifikasi permasalahan2. Pertanyaan bagaimana kita akan mengatasinya (financing, debt, trade) belum cukup tergali
2. Sudah banyak dibahas conditionality, tapi yang belum adalah ownership setiap negara untuk melakukannya. Kita tidak bisa mengenakan conditionalities dari sektor financing dan dari kreditor, banyak bukti bahwa itu tidak sustainable. Bagaimana kita menciptakan stronger ownership dan kemampuan untuk melakukan reformasi? Insentif seperti apa belum dibahas.
3. Kita membahas cooperation pada level global, bagaimana kita bisa membicarakannya saat ini jika partnership dan cooperation tanpa leadership. How? Bagaimana multilateral institutions (UN,WB, IMF dll) dapat menciptakan cooperation? Leadership, negara besar mana yang bisa provide misal G20 menjadi platformnya, ini masalah lacking of leadership. Tidak ada common ground atau shared objectives di tingkat pimpinan negara.
4. Reform tingkat multilateral: siapa yang seharusnya melakukan? Pengalaman saya bekerja di WB, shareholder dan membership bersama yang meminta real reform. “How” belum kita gali. Kita akan bahas di next meeting.
1. Women economists Anda semua sudah menjelaskan dengan jelas what can do, dan UN bisa memimpin dan meneruskan ke dunia.
2. Kami mendapat berbagai perspektif, dapatkah kita mengambil tantangan itu dan melihat financial architecture secara lokal dan global. Sudah banyak yang dilakukan secara global tapi tidak ada connection pada apa yang terjadi di akar bawah. Kate mengatakan ada ancaman eksponensial yang terjadi saat ini dan dengan melihat conditionalities yang jahat , padahal seharusnya yang menyelamatkan kehidupan planet dan manusia
3. Tentang cash transfer dan program proteksi sosial, jangan biarkan masyarakat hanya di atas ambang kematian tapi harus bisa survive dan berkembang.
4. This is about man and women, kita perlu leadership untuk mulai membentuk masa depan bersama. Pertemuan kita ini untuk profiling, berbincang, dan mendapatkan suara dari para wanita untuk masa depan lebih baik bagi semua.
5. Seri ke depan yaitu dengan young people utk bahasan lintas generasi agar UN dapat insight yang berbeda dan lebih responsif.
6. Pria dan wanita sama2 bisa take up leadership untuk keluar dari krisis ini.

Feeling Blessed

Alhamdulillah memasuki bulan Juli 2020. Berarti akan memasuki bulan ke enam WFH. Sebenarnya tanggal 26 dan 29 Juni kemarin saya WFO ke kantor Pancoran, bergiliran dengan teman-teman widyaiswara lainnya. Tell you what, saya bener-bener cocok WFH daripada bekerja di kantor. Bayangkan waktu 2 jam PP Pondok Aren – Pancoran itu bisa buat menyelesaikan tugas tambahan lainnya, eman2 cuma buat melintasi lalu lintas yang sudah normal lagi semrawutnya, terutama di daerah Kebayoran Lama.

Saya merasa lebih produktif selama WFH. Semenjak Februari 2020 tiap hari paling tidak saya menjadwalkan belajar synchronous mandiri dari mana saja. Saya belajar dari Expert Insights Series-nya Telkom (dari Serie 1 dan sekarang sudah memasuki Serie 9, luar biasa Telkom Corpu ini, sangat inspiring), dari group Leaders in Next Adventure nya BI Corpu, dan tentunya dari Kemenkeu Learning Center kita yaa….Duh ini yang membanggakan saya adalah pegawai Kemenkeu memanfaatkan waktu WFH nya nomor 1 adalah belajar dari KLC 1 dan KLC2 serta sosial media BPPK  (IG dan Youtube). Itu hasil survey CTO ya…seneeng banget dengernya bikin tambah bersyukur saja pekerjaan kita sekarang benar2 dirasakan user kami. Selama ini saya merasa BPPK dianggap sebelah mata saja oleh unit eselon I lain, tetapi memang jika kita merasa pengembangan kompetensi pegawai adalah tugas semua unit di Kemenkeu, fungsi learning dan development harusnya tidak boleh disepelekan. Sekarang, ketika semua pegawai tidak bisa bekerja di kantor dan sebagian kehilangan rutinitas kerja kantoran, pelarian dalam bentuk belajar adalah bijaksana, and I’m so happy that Kemenkeu Corpu becomes their first choice.

Selain belajar tentunya saya bekerja siang malam menyiapkan sesi pembelajaran. Dimulai dari mengikuti serial rapat Analisis Kebutuhan Pembelajaran bersama setiap unit pengguna Pusdiklat KU tempat kerja saya. Meskipun sudah dibagi masing-masing Wali Program, mengikuti semua rapat AKP bersama BPPK, DJPPR, BKF, Setjen, DJKN dan Itjen adalah learning tersendiri buat saya yang sayang untuk dilewatkan. Kami semua belajar memahami kebutuhan strategis semua unit, memastikan solusi terbaik pemenuhan gap kompetensi maupun isu strategis unit-unit yang harus kami layani. It’s time consuming and tiring most of the times, tapi itu penting dilakukan agar pembelajaran yang dibuat pusdiklat kami impactful. Saat rapat AKP itulah saat yang tepat buat kami menjelaskan konsep pembelajaran 702010 atau pembelajaran terintegrasi.

Lalu saat penerjemahan hasil AKP menjadi Kerangka Acuan Pembelajaran (KAP) juga seru rapat-rapatnya. We really rely much on good communication skills. Tanpa listening dan diskusi yang baik, bakal kacau jadinya. Jadi teringat saya ditunjuk menjadi Coach E-Learning Pengembangan Pembelajaran Terintegrasi, Tim yang saya dampingi didn’t have intense communication. Kelompok juga terlalu lama dalam mencapai kemufakatan untuk memilih program yang akan dikembangkan, karena setiap anggota kelompok adalah strong personality, dan yang parahnya lagi ada 2 anggota senior itu belum paham Manajemen Pembelajaran. Akhirnya kelompok muda yang pintar malah pasif dan mengalah, dan hasil pekerjaan mereka  itu kurang memuaskan. Tetapi memang itulah dinamika realitas saat penyusuan program yang baru. Kita tidak tahu will that KAP really works jika belum dilakukan piloting atau pelatihan sudah diselenggarakan sebelumnya.

Saat pengembangan buat saya juga benar2 tiring dan time consuming. Buat saya yang udah lima tahun ini membuat konten e-learning saja a bit challenging, kebayang buat guru-guru sekolah saat ini yang terbiasa klasikal akan jadi berat tantangan ini buat mereka. Saya sekarang lagi mendesain model PJJ atau distance learning untuk Pelatihan Business English 1, 2, dan 3. Membuat session planningnya saja (SAP Acuan) udah kesekian kali saya rombak, ada saja yang mesti diubah atau ditambahkan. Saya harus pastikan peserta saya nanti benar2 belajar dalam session yang sudah saya arrange terutama di bagian asynchronous mandirinya , jadi jika saat group synchronous dengan Zoom kita tinggal membahas latihan mereka dan mendiskusikan masalah dalam praktik. Saya siapkan bahan-bahan belajar yang self-contained dan self-instructional buat peserta, membuat video2 yang menggantikan saya mengajar di kelas, membuatkan latihan-latihan dan studi kasus, mencarikan referensi dan link tambahan buat peserta, serta menyiapkan bahan penilaian. Ini yang membuat saya sering begadang sampai lupa tidur, but once you have something in mind, you just can’t stop working on it. Alhamdulillah mungkin karena saya happy jadi nggak ada tuh sakit kepala atau sakit badan gara2 ini.

Oya saya akhir-akhir ini juga sibuk dengan menjadi tutor di kelas-kelas e-learning KLC. Yang terakhir kemarin adalah Angkatan 3 EL Manajemen Pembelajaran E-Learning, pesertanya sekarang sudah mencapai 1106 peserta nih. (Rating nya dapat 4,88 so far, dengan 500an comment berisi kepuasan peserta. Alhamdulillah) Menjadi tutor di situ saya memimpin sesi diskusi synchronous dalam mata pelajaran Perencanaan dan Ujicoba E-Learning. Nggak ada kendala berarti kecuali terkadang koneksi inet yang nggak stabil membuat suara saya beberapa kali hilang kata peserta. Kendala lain mungkin beberapa peserta yang pasif saat diskusi di breakout rooms, tapi buat saya tipikal pembelajar memang ada yang lebih suka mendengarkan orang lain diskusi ketimbang dia sendiri yang ikutan ngomong, so I’m just OK with that. Asal diam menyimak sih okay, kalo hide video lalu ngacir pergi ya kurang diajar itu hehehee…

Tugas evaluasi saya tetap jalan semasa WFH ini. Saya tetap jadi validator bank soal, memeriksa tugas peserta e-learning, memeriksa ujian, action learning project peserta dan juga masih menjadi Tim Penilai Pusat (TPP) Dupak Widyaiswara. It’s all fine by me, asalkan saya jangan diburu2 ditagih2 nilai saya normally kelar kerjaan itu dalam hitungan jam atau beberapa hari.

Saya lagi belajar menjadi Mentor Tidak Tetap di Manajemen Talenta BPPK tahun ini. Selama ini saya menjadi mentor bagi alumni pelatihan saya, nah sekarang ini lebih resmi dan terstruktur serta untuk mendukung talent pool bagi calon leaders di BPPK. Saya hanya menawarkan skill curriculum design saya serta English communication skill saya. Saat ini sudah dapat 5 mentee. This is really a good experience to me for my professional development. Dan lagi ini membuat ilmu saya sebagai asesor hard skill competency tidak mubazir, sangat relevan untuk digunakan dalam mentoring ini.

Apalagi ya yang buat saya so thankful? Oya saya masih keep up with my international buddies. Saya masih rajin mengikuti GDLN Sharings, STI IMF (ini sekarang malah enak nggak perlu datang ke Singapore lagi), dengan TEFLIN, BBC, dengan India, Srilanka, dsb. Really the internet makes everything possible. And saya juga reconnect dengan alumni Unair dan SD Taman Muda 1 saya sodaraa…this sure brings back all the good memories when we were students. Jadi bisa ngakak ngetawaian kelucuan atau kebegoan masa muda hahahaa…So happy to recall the hardships we had in the past are paid off now with our positions and roles in society. Hidup kita ternyata bermanfaat buat orang lain.

Jadi kalau masih aja ada yang sambat WFH bikin depresi ya itu masalah manajemen waktu anda ya sodara…Saya WFH gini sudah terbit lagi buku ke-5 saya tentang Panduan Komunikasi untuk ASN pas di hari ultah saya tanggal 29Juni 2020 lalu.  Sik tak pamerin dulu ya ehehee…

WhatsApp Image 2020-06-23 at 05.53.12

Yang mau buku gratis silakan komen di bawah nanti saya kirim ke rumah. BTW saya juga belajar buat yutup Channel untuk latihan editing aja, supaya ilmu dari Pelatihan Penyusunan Bahan Pembelajaran Berbasis Multimedia saya nggak hilang. Coba like and subscribe ya guys…hihihii kayak real youtuber aja. Tuh melas baru 6 aja subscribernya, etapi saya bikin yutub buat aktualisasi diri ya gaes, saya ini tipe orang yang nggak nyari followers atau subcribers. I’m too busy creating new teachers and leaders, so itu bener2 useful buat yang mau belajar aja. Are you among those people?

Youtube Efi

Pokoknya asal kita buat penjadwalan kegiatan kita, bakalan banyak deh yang akan kita hasilkan. Jadi mau bertambah rasa syukurnya, buat saya cukup rencanakan apa yang akan dilakukan. Saya alhamdulillah ketika berhasil menyelesaikan 1 task, hormon bahagia saya nambah. Hasilnya saya lebih sehat, mungkin saya nanti ceritakan di tulisan lain saja how that could have a change in my physical health. I do have a miracle happening, penasaran kaan? Tunggu ya…

Work with Your Heart!

The TPP LAN meeting I just attended really gives me a pain in my heart. Saya lebih suka jadi asesor daripada jadi penilai pusat, coz saya ngga bisa menilai dengan fair karena aturan yang menurut saya perlu dikaji lagi. Kalau asesor kan menyusun instrument sendiri sesuai dengan elemen kompetensi dan kriteria unjuk kerjanya, jadi akan lebih puas meneliti bukti yang VATM. Lha kalau Perka LAN ini diterbitkannya aja udah 2015 lalu dan masih dipakai untuk menilai angka kredit Widyaiswara tahun 2020 ini, masa pandemi pulak omigosh…just can’t believe my logic harus dikalahkan dengan aturan yang obsolete.

Kalau bunyi aturan LAN sendiri yang crystal clear artinya, yo wis saya ngalah dulu, meskipun pasti saya beri catatan di Berita Acara saya untuk pertimbangan revisi aturan ke depan. Lha kalau aturan yang masih diinterpretasi sendiri dan diatur lebih lanjut oleh internal BPPK kok saya banyak ngenesnya karena instansi saya kok malah mempersulit widyaiswara sepertinya. Sampai saya jadi nggak bisa berpikir positif bahwa itu untuk quality control, tapi malah kelihatan seperti tidak ada trust pada pengajar internal mereka.

Saya ambil satu contoh WI yang saya nilai yaitu ibu Mila Mumpuni. Kalo sobat tidak tahu, beliau itu adalah Widyaiswara Teladan Tingkat Nasional tahun 2018 kalau tidak salah. Beliau mengajukan AK 5,50 untuk penilaian Juni ini dengan rincian 2 KTI dalam bentuk buku prosiding serta mengikuti pelatihan dalam Badan. Semuanya harus dinilai nol juz because of unfair requirements, isn’t that cazy? Masalah beliau itu cuma tidak melampirkan Susuan Acara mempresentasikan KTI nya saja karena dalam dua buku prosiding itu tidak memuatnya. Sewaktu saya sampaikan bahwa aturan bukti berupa susunan acara itu perlu dikaji ulang, karena semua sudah tahu jika buku prosiding adalah kumpulan artikel ilmiah yang dipresentasikan peneliti dalam sebuah pertemuan ilmiah. Dari situ saja pastilah berkonotasi ada undangan buat penyaji dan ada rundown presentasinya, tidak mungkin ujug2 naskah bisa ada di sana. Terlepas dari penyaji hadir atau tidak saat hari konferensinya, itu di luar rencana. Jangan lantas usaha membuat tulisan ilmiah itu menjadi tidak bisa dinilai angka kreditnya. Yang pasti si penyaji tidak bisa mendapatkan angka kredit kegiatan penunjang sebagai penyaji pada seminar dan konferensi. Masuk akal nggak sih pemikiran saya? Misalnya buat pengandaian saja ada pengajar sudah mendapatkan ST untuk mengajar, maka dia pasti membuat bahan ajar dan bahan tayang. Pas hari H mengajar dia mendadak berhalangan, maka dia tidak akan mendapat angka kredit mengajar, tapi seharusnya sih bahan ajar dan bahan tayang dia bisa dinilai angkred karena dipakai oleh pengajar penggantinya. My point is just bersikaplah adil atas usaha seseorang, setiap tetes keringatnya harus kita hargai dengan bukti yang valid dan memadai, dengan kriteria yang masuk akal dan manusiawi. Saya kalau jadi asesor selalu njelimet dan teliti banget membuat instrumen penilaian saya agar adil tadi, dan di proses asesmen pun saya masih bisa melakukan upaya lebih untuk penggalian dan pembuktian kompetensi seseorang.

Teman saya bilang ibu Efi ini really speaking out her mind ya…apa2 yang ngga cocok langsung protes. Saya jawab saya ini bukan asal ceplas-ceplos, wong ada data memadai dan pengetahuan sendiri apakah kegiatan WI di Kemenkeu saya ini benar2 dilaksanakan atau tidak. Pasalnya itu bu Mila, untuk kegiatan mengikuti Pelatihan Menulis di Media Massa tidak bisa dinilai karena hanya melampirkan ST dari kepalai Balai, sedangkan aturan internal BPPK adalah WI mengikuti pelatihan harus menggunakan ST dari Sekretariat Badan. Ini juga saya protes karena kasus seperti ini tidak sekali saja terjadi tapi sudah banyak WI Kemenkeu yang menjadi korbannya termasuk saya beberapa waktu lalu. Dalih Setban sih sekarang mereka sudah cepat dalam penyusunan ST pelatihan, oke we admit it. Trus saya kejar bagaimana jika sebenarnya ST fisik ada di kantor beliau sedangkan sekarang pandemi dan beliau tidak bisa ambil itu ST untuk di scan tetapi beliau hanya ada file di Ka Balai saja on hand. Kepala Balai kan tidak asal membuat surat penugasan tanpa ada permintaan atau penawaran dari Setban? Jadi aturan internal itu yang harus dikaji ulang. Buat saya filosofi aturan bukti angkred itu dibuat untuk memastikan bahwa kegiatan benar2 dilaksanakan. Dan saya tahu persis beliau ikut di pelatihan itu karena penyelenggaranya adalah Pusdiklat saya. Saya juga elaborasi dengan demand yang pernah disampaikan kepala LAN bahwa sekarang kita beradaptasi menjadi ASN Corpu. So corpu itu mengharuskan budaya learning, di mana itu bisa tumbuh jika semua ASN bisa belajar kapan saja di mana saja dari mana saja. Jadi ke depan, meski tanpa ST, asalkan WI bisa menunjukkan sertifikat pelatihan dari lembaga yang kredibel seharusnya instansi menerbitkan SPMK. Ini untuk mengapresiasi energi, waktu atau biaya yang dikeluarkan seorang WI untuk belajar. Ini juga membuat instansi diuntungkan bahkan karena mereka tidak keluar biaya negara karena cost ditanggung sendiri oleh pegawai yang belajar mandiri itu. Saya sampai mencontohkan diri sendiri kalau saya sering ikut courses di Coursera dan LinkedIn karena sering tidak diberi kesempatan untuk diklat di luar badan. Sedangkan pelatihan di BPPK banyak yang tidak bisa memenuhi kebutuhan pengembangan kompetensi saya. Meskipun sertifikat saya sudah seabrek itu saya tidak pernah saya ajukan DUPAk coz saya tidak meminta ST apalagi SPMK. Tapi harusnya ini dibuatkan aturan LAN untuk mensupport budaya belajar bagi setiap ASN. Jadi, kemarin pelatihan beliau tetap saya kasih nilai 0,50 dan saya buat catatan di BA bahwa beliau sudah lengkap ST Kepala BDK Yogyakarta serta SPMK nya tetapi tidak ada ST Sekretariat Badan. Saya yang diminta jadi penilai, saya boleh dong pakai kewenangan saya hehee…kalau di LAN tetap mencoretnya, ya sudah…toh kezoliman itu bukan dari saya.

Teman-teman TPP lain jika menemui kasus yang sama seperti tadi tetap tidak mau menilai karena supaya konsisten dengan cara penilaian sebelumnya. Kalau saya tetap berdalih, jika praktik lama itu saya dapati salah ya harus kita benahi, saya ngga suka status quo kalau itu malah merugikan. Sampai saya jelaskan ya menjadi penilai, asesor, evaluator dan sejenisnya itu berat buat saya, karena pertanggungjawabannya dunia akhirat karena berpengaruh pada nasib seseorang. Jangan sampai salah menilai membuat rekan WI tidak jadi naik pangkat atau malah tragis lagi harus dibebastugaskan karena dianggap tidak berkinerja karena angkred tidak terpenuhi. Jangan pula ngasal menilai sih supaya juga tidak ada celah untuk penyelewengan, tapi ketentuan yang merugikan WI sih bukan wujud kehati2an tapi bentuk kurangnya penghargaan menurut saya.

Kerja itu pakai akal dan hati lah… Keluhuran budi ini yang menjadikan kita manusia yang baik. Saya berani speak out jika ada masalah yang mengganggu nurani saya. Saya harap teman-teman saya mau juga mengedepankan suara hati nya sebelum mengambil keputusan dan berani ambil peran untuk meluruskan. Semoga saja mereka yang ada di sidang TPP kemarin serta AJF BPPK merenung ulang dan memasukkan masukan saya untuk disampaikan ke LAN. Kita protes gini juga untuk kebaikan semua kok, biar WI happy dan semangat mengisi pembelajaran. WI happy, organisasi juga happy kaan?

Q&A Communication Skills dengan Peserta Diklat Orientasi CPNS

Saya mau share transkrip sesi tanya jawab saya dalam kelas Communication Skills di Orientasi Pelaksanaan Tugas BPPK beberapa hari lalu via Zoom Meeting. Pertanyaan sebelumnya sudah mereka kirim lewat jadi saya enak bisa cari2 jawaban dulu di Modul saya. Oh ya…Kalau ada kalimat yang choppy, ya memang itulah yang spoken waktu diskusi. Saya hapus bagian2 yang perlu, jadi ini tinggal inti sarinya saja. Simak ya…

  1. Venna, 3 likes. Bagaimana cara melatih skill public speaking agar tidak nervous saat tampil di depan publik? Dan bagaimana cara berkomunikasi yang efektif saat public speaking?


Pertama saya buat ada 3 syarat utama agar tidak nervous yaitu:

  • Berdoa , coz what I want to share is something beneficial/important, jadi saya mohon ridho Allah SWT, and it really works. Berdoa membangun komunikasi intrapersonal, karena ia jadi lebih tenang karena yakin ada Tuhan yang memberikan kekuatan dan pertolongan saat kita melakukan public speaking. Anda tahu, orang yang berdoa pasti akan do the best tapi urusan hasil dia akan tawakal dan ikhlas, sehingga dia akan lebih rileks saat berbicara di publik
  • Take a deep breath atau aktivitas lain untuk mengeluarkan ketegangan . Kalau saya smile setelah hela napas panjang, tetapi orang lain bisa dengan kebiasaan lain. Ada yang menggosok-gosok tangan, meloncat-loncat seperti Pak Tung Desem Waringin, dll lalu lakukan affirmasi pada diri sendiri I will succeed and I will do my best. Say positive thoughts to yourself bahwa I will succeed. Itu yang saya lakukan supaya jadi tenang.
  • Menguasai materi atau topik . Ini wajib untuk komunikasi setting formal karena ada informasi yg harus disampaikan, Anda harus yakin tidak akan off track atau buat kesalahan. Jika kurang familiar dengan topik, research dulu, pelajari dulu. Ini mutlak. Kalau setting informal, Anda hanya perlu menjadi orang yang spontan dan mampu building rapport dengan audiens, karena mengandalkan improvisasi Anda.

Selanjutnya cara melatih skill publik speaking Anda:

  • Get organized. Buat organisasi presentasi Anda: Rencanakan apa saja poin-poin yang akan disampaikan dalam pembukaan, isi dan penutup supaya pembicaraan terarah . Siapkan tayangan visual, audio dll jika memungkinkan. Tanpa rencana Anda berencana untuk gagal karena bisa saja jadi tidak fokus atau ngalor ngidul dan akhirnya kekurangan waktu. Buat small outline, catatan kecil untuk dilihat.
  • Praktik, rehearse (apalagi jika jam terbang masih minim). Boleh di depan kaca, atau direkam untuk nanti dilihat lagi sambil menilai mana yg sudah bagus atau belum. Lebih bagus lagi berlatih dengan orang lain, misalnya dengan teman atau keluarga untuk mendapatkan immediate feedback. Dengan praktik Anda akan tahu artikulasi sudah jelaskah, tempo sudah moderate kah, suara sudah audible atau tdk dll. Memang,ketrampilan (skill), harus dipraktekkan dan diulang terus menerus sampai akhirnya Anda benar-benar mahir.
  • Fokus di materi. Tugas Anda menyampaikan materi atau pesan Anda, dan mostly audience butuh menyerap informasi Anda jadi mereka mainly pay attention kepada informasi Anda. Jadi jangan gugup jika semua mata memandang Anda itu hanyalah mereka trying to focus on your information, bukan semata-mata mau judging Anda.
  • Get support. Ikuti klub speaking seperti Jakarta Toastmaster/ Toasmaster Indonesia di Menara Kuningan. Itu murah, 200an  setahun untuk jadi anggota sudah dapat materi latihan leadership juga. Kalau Anda berminat jadi seorang profesional publik spekaer ikutlah kursus  misalnya ke Tantowi Yahya, Alvin Adam, David Pranata, Erwin Parengkuan-Becky Tumewu, Tina Talisa, Panji Pragiwaksono dll . Karena mahal, make sure balik modal. Tetapi sekarang Anda cukup gunakan contoh-contoh di Youtube dan praktik langsung saja sendiri.

Selanjutnya cara komunikasi efektif saat public speaking tentunya Anda harus memastikan pesan sampai. Supaya pesan sampai, caranya Anda menjaga

  • Eye contact. Jaga kontak mata Anda karena Anda berbicara pada audiens, bukan lantai atau langit2. At least lihat area dahi audiens.
  • Tempo, intonasi, artikulasi dijaga. Seperti seorang story teller, Anda akan bisa meyakinkan audiens.
  • Building rapport activities; jokes atau humor yang cerdas, yang tidak porno atau menyudutkan atau SARA , gunakan juga pantun, stories atau cerita.
  • Libatkan audience. Misalkan atanyakan sudah sampai mana, sudah paham belum.  Interaksi  dengan audiens juga play for time sehingga Anda tidak rushing ketika public speaking.
  • To the point. Intinya apa dulu, baru jelaskan. Ingatlah KISS, Keep It Short and Simple, singkat jelas padat
  • Pilihan kata yang tepat. Diksi yang tepat akan semakin memperkuat public speaking Anda.

2. Dian, 3 likes

Seseorang yang pandai berkomunikasi secara tertulis tapi tidak pandai dalam lisan, apakah orang tersebut sudah memiliki skill komunikasi?


Anda perlu pahami, apa itu ketrampilan komunikasi? Communication skills are abilities you use when giving and receiving different kinds of information. Jadi dalam proses komunikasi itu ada decoding & encoding , jadi ada input dan output dari komunikasi. Decoding itu pemahaman pesan, kita lakukan dengan reading, listening. Encoding adalah proses pembuatan dan penyampaian pesan, yaitu speaking dan writing. Jadi produk dari keterampilan komunikasi bisa lisan dan tertulis.

Kembali ke pertanyaan Anda, jika dia punya skill komunikasi tertulis atau punya skill komunikasi lisan maka orang itu hanya memiliki sebagian keterampilan komunikasi, hanya keterampilan tertulis saja sedangkan ketrampilan lisan dia tidak menguasai. Seseorang yang disebut the most effcient  atau proficient, yang sering kita sebut dengan  EXPERT  itu punya 4 skill itu yaitu membaca, mendengar, berbicara, dan menulis dengan sangat baik.

3. Natasya, 2 likes

Di masa WFH, cara berkomunikasi dengan atasan adalah melalui WhatsApp. Menurut ibu apa etika dan tata Krama dalam berkomunikasi dengan atasan via WhatsApp?


Etika membuat Anda tahu mana yang baik atau patut dalam berkomunikasi. Tips dari saya terkait chat dengan WA dengan atasan:

  • Salam pembuka. Wajib di awal, jangan sampai tidak ada.
  • Jangan lupa. Kenalkan diri jika belum pernah kontak sebelumnya dengan senior atau atasan baru Anda.
  • Sampaikan tujuan. Izin melaporkan. Mau bertanya. Memberi tahu. Mengundang. Sampaikan sebelum masuk inti pesan.
  • Timing, waktu yang tepat. Karena bahasannya adalah pekerjaan, office hour is preferrable. Anda bisa bayangkan atasan di WA atasan jam 2 malam  untuk urusan yang sebenarnya bisa dihandle besok pagi, Anda mengganggu waktu istirahat atasan Anda.
  • Bahasa formal. Gunakan struktur dan pilihan kata formal. Ingat materi tentang register bahasa. Saya vs aku, berkenan/bersedia vs mau, tidak vs nggak, sepertinya vs kayaknya, dll.
  • Hati-hati penggunaan singkatan atau  abbreviations yang tidak patut atau tidak dimengerti atasan.
  • Perhatikan, watch your tone atau nada dalam pesan. Baca ulang sebelum kirim, bisa minta tolong quick check dengan teman sebelum kirim. Safest way ditambahi emoticon yang lazim tapi tidak alay.
  • Always reply. Konfirmasikan pemahaman atau penerimaan
  • Don’t argue. Jika terpaksa ada yang harus diluruskan, maka argue politely. Ingat PETS expressions yang pernah saya terangkan di materi E-learning, please, excuse me, thank you, sorry wajib digunakan sesuai tempatnya.
  • Selalu tawarkan untuk komunikasi langsung , atau tawarkan telepon lanjutan atau video call lanjutan untuk menjelaskan lebih lanjut. Ini penting untuk hindari misunderstanding. Katakan “mungkin sebaiknya saya jelaskan lewat telepon langsung bu.” “Boleh saya telpon Bapak langsung untuk mejelaskan lebih lanjut?”
  • Keep relevant. Jangan digress dari tujuan utama mengirim pesa. Jangan curhat, banyak alasan dll

4.Rara Nisya, 2 likes

Terkadang cara komunikasi berbeda beda tergantung karakter orang yang bersangkutan. Apakah ibu ada tips atau saran kepada kami yang masih OJT dalam menghadapi hal tersebut?


Karakter yg seperti apa? Different personalities atau kepribadian kah? Berarti Anda harus paham human metrics dong supaya paham personality types. Sebenarnya ada 16 types dari Myerss & Briggs dengan tes MBTI, tapi di sini saya akan jelaskan yang 4 types  saja yang umumnya kita paham, yaitu sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.

Sanguin: tipe riang; friendly, gesit, ekstrovert, PD. Kadang ceplas-ceplos . Jika punya rekan kerja atau atasan seperti ini buatlah struktur bicara  atau poin-poin. Jika Anda merasa punya tipe kepribadian ini, biasakan berpikir sebelum bicara, jangan sala nyeplos.

Choleric:  tipe kuat; semangat; optimis; keras kepala, mudah marah  dan tidak sabaran; dramatic, tegas ; suka tantangan; bossy; tanggung jawab dan target oriented. Mengalahlah pada tipe dominan, komunikasi dengan respek, kita perlu banyak menyesuaikan agar bisa jadi partner yang equal.

Melancholic: tipe rinci;  terlihat khawatir dan mudah menyerah, kritis , serius,  analitis , perfeksionis, tekun dan sangat kreatif ; lebih introvert. Jika peunya atasan seperti ini Anda harus berani memulai bicara,  karena beliau mesti sering dipancing utk mengungkapkan  tipe dia suka menyimpan sendiri. Saran buat Anda yang merasa dirinya melankolis jangan suka melihat segalanya dari negatif, kurangi merinci everything. Harus berani beropini ya…

Phlegmatis:  tipe damai; dia tak suka kekerasan dan selalu cinta damai, humoris; introvert; inward thinking; tenang, menghindari konflik, tabah. Suka ide, konsep, pendengar yang baik tapi pemalu. Sering dimintakan pendapat saja, diminta jangan malu, beri encouragement dan dukungan.

5.Sapto Aji, 2 likes

Bagaimana cara mengatasi blank pada saat presentasi atau mendapat pertanyaan yang susah dijawab saat presentasi?


Pengalaman saya yang bisa saya share barangkali seperti ini.

  • Lupa itu natural. Jangan malu jika tiba-tiba blank, bahkan orang yang sering tampil di depan publik kadang mengalaminya.
  • Tenang saja. Akui kalau itu pertanyaan sulit untuk cari jeda buat memikirkan jawaban. Positive thinking jika orang bertanya memang karena ingin tahu dan kita harus bantu cari jawaban. So, Anda harus rileks saja.
  • Tanyakan balik ke penanya atau audiens lain yang bisa menjawab. Tawarkan siapa yang mau menjawab lebih dulu. Setelah itu synthesize dan tambahkan jawaban Anda sendiri. Kadang kita benar-benar lupa dan butuh dipancing agar keluar jawaban kita dengan mendengar jawaban orang lain.
  • Play for time. Saya coba lihat notes atau slides lagi sambil mikirin jawaban. Biasanya nanti menemukan jawaban . Nah, bagaimana kalau tidak nemu juga?
  • Jika sama sekali ngga paham, saya akui. Nanti saya carikan referensi lainnya. Jujur. “Saya belum punya jawaban itu sekarang, tapi saya akan jawab besok …” “Saya akan carikan jawaban dulu nanti setelah sesi ini” dll

6.Arifiana, 1 like

Dalam menghadapi atasan yang bersifat keras (sifat dan tutur kata) sering muncul rasa takut dan trauma. Bagaimana sebaiknya berkomunikasi dengan kondisi itu tanpa takut dan trauma?


Apakah Anda kenal dengan atasan yang galak itu? Tahukah latar belakang dia? Apakah orang itu tidak bahagia? Apakah orang itu sangat disiplin? Target oriented? Apakah dia tipe pencemas yang cenderung marah jika sesuatu mengkhawatirkannya? Menghadapi atasan yang keras sifat dan tutur katanya saya hanya bisa bagikan beberapa tips

  • Jangan emosi atau dimasukkan hati. Tidak perlu terpancing ego Anda, tidak  perlu meladeni amarahnya atau membalas dengan bersikap keras juga.
  • Be wise dan empatik . Saran saya banyaklah mendengarkan dia . “Oh begitu…Saya paham.” Sudah, jangan masukkan hati. Maafkan dan bahkan kasihani dia.
  • Be nice. Lembutkan suara. Volume sedang, tempo perlahan yang tertata.
  • Give a break. Beri waktu untuk mencerna dan menenangkan pikiran termasuk hati kita, kita break dari dia dengan tidak meresponsnya sementara waktu.
  • Jaga body language. Jaga tangan tetap di samping, jangan melipat tangan di dada atau berkacak pinggang di depannya. Jangan membuat body language yang mengancam, misalnya melotot, mencibir, membelalakkan mata, dll.
  • Dengarkan dia. Jangan dipotong atau dibantah.
  • Istighfar terus  dalam hati. Kalau memang itu sudah watak dia, saya akan dengan sadar mengalah.
  • Doakan. Allah maha pembolak balik hati, siapa tahu dengan doa kita atasan akan melunak hatinya.

7. Amanda, 1 like

Apakah kepribadian seseorang mempengaruhi cara berkomunikasi nya? Lalu bagaimana cara kita sebagai pegawai baru untuk mengembangkan kemampuan berkomunikasi kita?

Saya sudah menjelaskan tadi terkait kepribadian. Menurut saya, kecenderungan kepribadian bisa mempengaruhi cara berkomunikasi seseorang, tetapi itu tidak mutlak. Karena seseorang itu bisa melatih cara berkomunikasi, dan cara berkomunikasi adalah pilihan. Jadi setiap orang pasti dengan sengaja memilih cara dia berkomunikasi.

Tetapi perlu diingat cara berkomunikasi tidak hanya dipengaruhi oleh kepribadian saja. Banyak faktor lain misalnya

  1. Lingkungan (space, location, noise, suasana psikologis, lingkungan fisik)
  2. Budaya, norma, etika (kepemimpinan). Pelajarilah komponen komunikasi, Anda pasti bisa menjelaskan lagi hal-hal yang mempengaruhi efektivitas komunikasi.

Cara pengembangan kemampuan komunikasi  bagi pegawai baru saya katakan BANYAK Kita berkomunikasi setiap hari bukan? Caranya tentu bisa formal melalui belajar terstruktur seperti kursus atau diklat, bisa juga informal misalnya dengan social learning dengan rekan kerja, atasan, dan lain-lain.

Carilah kesempatan praktik komunikasi sebanyak-banyaknya karena disitulah akan ada learning buat Anda. Jadi saya sarankan lagi

  1. Hadapi penugasan. Diminta menelpon, OK. Diminta menghadap atasan, langsung menghadap. Diminta MC, OK. Diminta presentasi, ayo. Diminta buat laporan, OK. Jadi notulis, OK.
  1. Ikut komunitas social learning. Dimentor seseorang. Arisan, organisasi, klub hobby, Pecha kucha Jakarta (20 slides x 20 detik), Toasmaster Indonesia, Britzone, AISEC, dll
  2. Ikut kursus komunikasi saja banyak di Jakarta, ikut diklat, dll

8.Krisna, 1 like

Apakah faksimile masih digunakan dalam urusan kantor di kementerian keuangan?

Jawab: Masih

Contohnya ketika kantor saya m enerima Surat Pengantar terkait Dosir, Sertifikat, Sekretariat BPPK masih meminta untuk mengirim kembali via fax apabila dokumennya sudah terima. Untuk surat-surat yang butuh dikirim kembali tanda terima maupun SP nya, jika tidak mencantumkan nomor WA untuk mengirim foto, biasanya kita kirim kembali kepada pengirim via faksimili.


Apa Sih Model Pembelajaran 70:20:10?

Semua orang berkata jika pembelajaran di Corporate University harus memakai konsep model 70:20:10. Sebenarnya, apa sih model pembelajaran 70:20:10 itu? Istilah 70:20:10 mulai dicari di Google pada Mei 2007. Yang menggunakan istilah pertama kali yaitu Charles Jennings (Head of Global Learning and  Development di Reuters ) dalam wawancara CIPD podcast. Saat itu Jenning menjawab pertanyaan tentang peran line managers dalam learning and development  (L&D), dan saat itu pertama kali dia sebutkan konsep 70:20:10.  Jennings di kemudian hari menjadi pendiri The 70:20:20 Forum.

Dari sumber lain,  konsep 70:20:10 pertama kali dibuat oleh tiga peneliti dan penulis yang bekerja untuk  the Center for Creative Leadership (lembaga pendidikan nirlaba di Greensboro) yaitu Morgan McCall, Michael M. Lombardo dan Robert A. Eichinger. Ketiganya sedang meneliti key developmental experiences dari 191 manager yang sukses. Meskipun penamaan 70/20/10 tidak tercantum di buku The Lessons of Experience (1988), buku itu menceritakan proses menggali  informasi dari tiap manajer ttg  3 peristiwa penting dalam karir mereka , bagaimana kejadiannya, serta apa yang mereka pelajari dari peristiwa tersebut.

Dalam buku Career Architect Planner (1996) Lombardo dan  Eichinger merangkum hasil risetnya tadi sebagai  lessons learned bagi successful and effective managers adalah:

70 % dari penugasan t from tough jobs.
20 % dari orang lain (mostly the boss).
10 % dari courses dan reading.

Dua buku tadi merupakan sumber resmi yang menyebut 70:20:10 sebagai model pembelajaran di organisasi bisnis.

Selain itu ada Alan Tough (1960s), seorang Educational psychologist, juga dianggap yang awal mula menggunakan istilah 70:20:10 sebagai learning model.

Yang menarik , Kajewski and Masden (2012) menyatakan bahwa tidak ada asal usul istilah 70/20 10 itu. Menurut mereka, tidak ada data empiris yang mendukung istilah 70:20:10 meskipun dua sumber buku di atas sering disebut2.  Meskipun demikian tidak dipungkiri jika the 70:20:10 model menjadi momentum untuk mengembangkan learning yang mengombinasikan belajar dalam situasi formal dan informal  serta belajar dari orang lain

Prinsip utama yang mendasari belajar dengan model 70/20/10 adalah temuan Ebbington Forgeting Curve. Hipotesanya adalah terjadi penurunan retensi memori sejalan dengan waktu. Kurva menunjukkan jika informasi makin hilang sejalan dengan waktu jika tidak ada usaha untuk melakukan retensi. Kekuatan mengingat (memory strength) adalah seberapa lama memori tersimpan di otak. Semakin kuat memori maka semakin lama seseorang mampu melakukan recalling. Pada gambar kurva tersebut, manusia cenderung menurun memori terhadap pengetahuan baru dalam beberapa menit dan hari. Jika tidak dilakukan usaha secara sadar untuk mereview pengetahuan baru tersebut. Usaha sadar itu adalah ‘putting the new knowledge skills into practice straight away’ –langsung mempraktikkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan baru itu segera.

Model Pembelajaran 70:20:10  banyak memberikan manfaat, yaitu

  • membuat semua pegawai bertanggung jawab terhadap learning mereka sendiri
  • mendorong sharing pembelajaran dan pengalaman
  • mengakui peran yang dapat dialakukan setiap orang dalam meningkatkan kinerja
  • memungkinkan setiap orang belajar dengan cara yang sesuai dengan mereka
  • memperluas pandangan semua orang tentang apa belajar itu
  • meningkatkan perencanaan pengembangan/development (tidak hanya dari menu saja)
  • mengubah pemikiran menjadi “apa yang bisa saya lakukan sekarang?”
  • mengembangkan ‘Budaya Belajar’ di organisasi

Banyak insight yang bisa kita dapatkan dari Model 70:20:10 tersebut. Di antaranya :

  • Apa yang kita pelajari di kampus/ di kelas tidak begitu membantu pekerjaan seperti yang kita kira
  • Kita bisa belajar banyak hal dari orang lain
  • OJT/magang maupun penugasan adalah cara paling efisien untuk mengembangkan pegawai
  • Banyak perusahaan dan organisasi menyusun pelatihan dengan model 70/20/10 ini
  • Hasilnya perusahaan/organisasi lebih fokus pada mentoring/pembinaan dan program knowledge sharing/berbagi pengetahuan

OK sampai di sini dulu tentang konsep Pembelajaran 70:20:10. Kita sambung lagi nanti dengan struktur desainnya seperti apa. Cheerioo….

Learning Organization

Seperti seorang individu yang memiliki KSA, organisasi juga memiliki tujuan yaitu menuju pencapaian kinerja (performance).

Performance organisasi dilihat dari kapabilitas individu, tim, maupun organisasi. Performance sendiri terdiri dari SKILL  (pola befikir dan perilaku) dan WILL (dorongan, minat dan keyakinan) yang ada di organizasi . Yang terlihat dari luar adalah actions atau perilaku dari individu/tim/organisasi, sedangkan di dalamnya tidak nampak oleh masyarakat. Tetapi organisasi yang perform memiliki semua unsur2 mulai dari dorongan, niat, keyakinan, hingga pola pikir. Learning dalam organisasi harus bisa menjangkau semua komponen tersebut agar SKILL dan WILL semua individu dalam organisasi berubah ke arah peningkatan. Dari sinilah perlunya organisasi berubah menjadi suatu Learning Organization.

Apakah Learning Organization itu? Learning Organization adalah organisasi yang memiliki budaya learning. Menurut Kevin Wheeler dalam The Corporate University Workbook (2005), Learning Organization adalah organisasi yang memiliki kapabilitas dalam mengadaptasi perubahan dan menciptakan keterikatan karyawan dengan group pemecahan masalah, selalu memelihara kreativitas dan selalu kompetitif dalam menghadapu tantangan bisnis. Learning organization menjadi kunci utama agar organisasi selalu beradaptasi dengan cepat dan tepat asesuai dengan perkembangan bisnis yang terjadi.

Untuk membangun suatu learning organization diperlukan komitmen yang kuat dari para pimpinan puncak organisasi. Selain itu diperlukan perubahan sistem dan struktur organisasi yang tepat dan efektif, pembagian tugas, alokasi tanggung jawab, proses bisnis yang efektif, fasilitas pembelajaran sesuai kebutuhan peningkatan kompetensi inti organisai, penggunaan peta kompetensi yang berisi kelengkapan kompetensi human interaction effectiveness, leadership, characters, kompetensi teknis, pengetahuan substantif serta teknologinya menjadi prasyarat mutlak jika ingin berhasil membangun learning organization.

Selain itu dalam Organizational learning berarti pembelajaran di organisasi tersebut harus berubah dari pola atau kebiasaan yang lama. Harus ada pergeseran dari paradigma lama tentang learning.

Pada fungsi learning model lama, cirinya sbb:

Sangat jarang kebutuhan bisnis sebagai ide program pembelajaran
Tipikal pekerjaan pengelola sebagai desainer atau trainer.
Fokus pada pengajaran (teaching).
Fokus pelaporan berdasarkan kegiatan (activity based)
Spesifik objektif fokus pada kegiatan pembelajaran
Partnership kurang dikembangkan

Sedangkan learning yang berfokus pada performance improvement, cirinya sbb:

Solusi dikaitkan dengan kebutuhan bisnis yang spesifik.
Tipikal pekerjaan pengelola sebagai konsultan kinerja atau teknologis kinerja.
Fokus pada kolaborasi dan konsultasi.
Pelaporan berdasarkan hasil (result based).
Spesifik objektif fokus pada penerapan, dampak bisnis, dan ROI.
Partnership dikembangkan dengan para key managers.