- Arrangement of curriculum elements into a substantive entity.
- Basic curriculum components:
- Aim, goals, and objectives
- Subject matter
- Learning experiences
- Emphasis on different components shape the design of the curriculum.
- Taba believes that most curriculum lack balance because –
- the components are poorly defined, or
- they not considered within a theoretical framework
- When curriculum are planned those who construct the curriculum may place differing emphases on these components parts.
- Usually more emphasis is placed on the subject matter.
- Sometimes “fashion” exerts a disproportionate influence on a curriculum, i.e., TQM, customer service, SOL’s, basics, etc.
Horizontal and Vertical Organizations
- Horizontal – Scope and integration (subjects)
- Vertical – Sequence and continuity (corporate)Curriculum Design vs Instructional Design
- Curriculum Design – The total plan that arranges the four components into the curriculum, i.e., objectives, content, learning experiences and evaluation).
- Instructional Design – Refers specifically to one component, the potential experiences for the student, learning activities (methods and organization).
Sources of Curriculum Design
- Science as Source
- Society as Source
- Eternal and Devine Sources
- Knowledge as a Source
- The Learner as a Source
Science as a Source
- The scientific method provides meaning for the curriculum design.
- Only those items that can be observed and quantified should be included.
- Problem-solving should have the prime position in the curriculum, i.e., stress thinking.
- Procedural knowledge or knowledge of process.
- The curriculum teaches rational processes for dealing with reality.
Society as a Source
- Curriculum is an agent of society.
- Curriculum are designed to serve the broad social interests of society, as well as the local community.
- Support is shown for society as a curriculum source since the universe is becoming, rather than existing for our detached scientific viewing.
- Society shows where to modify the curriculum.
External and Devine Sources
- Curriculum design should be intended to perpetuate society.
- It should pass on the significance of people’s values and personal morality.
- Devine will, eternal truth from the Bible.
- Today these sources are reflected through the curriculum designer’s values and personal morality.
Knowledge as a Source
- One of the prime sources of curriculum.
- Disciplined knowledge has a particular structure and a particular method(s) used to extend its boundaries.
- Disciplined vs Undisciplined Knowledge
- Disciplined = unique
- Undisciplined = various (training)
The Learner as a Source
- Curriculum is derived from what we know about the learner.
- We draw much from the psychological foundations.
- Based on cognitive research.
- Emphasizes “learning by doing”.
- Even though decisions are essential, it appears that curricula are not the result of careful design deliberations.
- Overall curriculum designs receive little attention both in schools and corporations.
- Curriculum design is left to specialists in subject matter areas.
- Content, topics, and learning experiences
- Linking all the knowledge and experience within the curriculum.
- Assists in making meaning for the learner.
- Ordering of knowledge
- Vertical relationships, i.e.,
- Simple to complex
- Whole to part
- Recurring and continuing opportunity to practice skill development.
- Interrelatedness of various aspects of the curriculum.
- “Lost knowledge” – just taught but not related to other learning or lessons.
- Appropriate weight be given to each aspect of the design.
Representative Curriculum Designs
- Student-Centered Designs – content and/or processes.
- Learner-Centered Designs – based on students’ lives – interests, needs, and empowerment.
- Problem-Centered Designs – focuses on problems of living and society (i.e., work, etc.)
- Curriculum design should possess internal consistency –
Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
- The basic premise is that training is most effective when the trainees are provided a specific statement of what they must do and how their performance will be evaluated.
- The instruction is then developed to teach learners through either hands-on or performance-based instruction.
- The assumption is that a trainee can be taught to perform to a specified level or standard if the instruction is presented on small enough segments, is interactive, and is performance oriented.
- American Society for Training and Development, March 1988, Issue 803
Instructional Systems Design Model (ISD)
ISD – Analysis
- Gathers information to determine –
- if training is the organizational response to the problem.
- what the training should accomplish.
- groups needing training.
- resources available.
- other needed information related to training.
ISD – Design (curriculum)
- Prepares the developer for selecting and writing program materials –
write program objectives.
- Develop test items.
- Establish design structure and sequence.
ISD – Development (instructional design)
- The developer prepares training program –
- Training materials support objectives.
- Media selection appropriate to objectives.
- Evaluation forms are prepared.
- Documentation tracks participants progress.
- Course documented.
ISD – Implementation (instruction)
- Actual instruction carried out –
- Instructors selected.
- Classes held.
- Problems recorded.
- Program revised up to implementation.
ISD – Evaluation
- Evaluation of training program
- Evaluation carried out.
- Use data to revise training program.
Competency-Based Education Model
- A system of education designed to develop prespecified, role relevant competence in those who are to be products of the system.
- Writing Competency-Based Frameworks, VVCRC
- Duty Area
- Performance Objectives (conditions, performance and standard)
- Performance Measures
- Enabling Objectives
- Instructional Activities
- Represents a category of job responsibilities, a grouping of similar tasks, i.e., baking in catering course.
Task or Competency
- Describes a measurable item of knowledge, skill, or behavior related to the occupational area, i.e., ordering staples in a baking unit.
- Explains what the student must do to demonstrate that he or she has mastered this task/competency.
- Tells the student
- under what conditions the performance will take place
- exactly what performance is required
- how well the student must perform as a minimum standard.
- Tells how the student performance will be assessed.
- Offers suggested steps leading to mastery of the performance objective, including
- related skills
- supporting concepts
- related knowledge
- theory behind a psychomotor skill
- reinforcement of prior learning
- parts of the performance required
- Presents suggested assignments contributing to the student’s mastery, including such activities as –
- group projects
- individual projects
- written work
- oral work
- critical thinking activities
- audiovisual presentations
- nLists a variety of aids for teaching the task/competency
- printed materials
Selection of a Model
- All use Foundations as specified by Ritz Model (due March 22)
- Select Model for Remainder of Curriculum (Due April 19)
- Ritz Model
- ISD Model (Design Component)
- CBE Model