Catatan Second Language Acquisition waktu kuliah dulu

writing 4

I. Summary of References

  • H.H. Stern (1970) recommend procedures for second language teaching method on the basis of first language acquisition behaviorist: 1st LA is a rote practice: habit formation, shaping, over learning, conditioning, association, stimulus – response 1. practice over and over again all the time. 2. imitate everything 3. practice in natural order: separate sounds, then words, then sentences. 4. follow a child’s speech development: listen, then speak, and then you can understand 5. remember the natural order: listening, speaking, reading, writing 6. do not translate 7. no need to use grammatical conceptualization
  • The Critical Period Hypothesis: biological timetable that puberty is the critical point of SLA
  • Incorrect assumptions : that people above 12-13 year are impossible to be a successful SL learner.
  • Some considerations on the issues:
  1. Neurological brain function in the acquisition process (left = intellectual, logic, analytic; right = emotional, social) Neurological research gives evidence that language function is controlled in the left hemisphere Eric Lennenberg (1967): lateralization is a slow process from 2 years old – puberty Thomas Scovel (1969): plasticity of brain to lateralize and acquire SL is prior to puberty Norman Geschwind (1970), Stephen Krashen (1973): completed before 5 years old Obler (1981): in later age, there’s part of the right hemisphere involved Genesee (1982): language processing in bilinguals are more in the right hemisphere
  2. Psychomotor speech muscle (throat, larynx, mouth, lips, tongue, etc) must be controlled to achieve the fluency of a native speaker. Scovek (1988) communicative and functional purposes of language is far more important than pronunciation of language
  3. Cognitive intellect – Piaget stages of intellectual development: 0-2 = sensory motor, 2-7 = pre-operational, 7-16 = operational. Piagetian equilibration: as someone becomes more mature, the left hemisphere is more dominant. Doubt/uncertain = disequilibrium moves to resolution/certain = equilibrium – Cognitive Domain of Ausbel : LA is not a rote but a meaningful repetition and mimicking
  4. Affective emotion – The factors are empathy, self-esteem, extroversion, inhibition, imitation, anxiety, attitude Guiora (1972): egocentricity = self-directed speech. ‘Language Ego” = someone’s identity in the language he develops. Younger learners are more egocentric – Some examples: negative attitudes can affect language learning; peer pressure; older people can tolerate linguistic differences more than children, so more excuses
  5. Linguistic First language is the facilitating factor. E.g. children learning two languages simultaneously, they just distinguish two contexts. For second language learning in children after they acquire First L, the process is similar in learning Foreign Language
  • In the classroom : The Audiolingual Method

It is he use of oral drill and pattern practice (repetition, inflection, replacement, restatement, completion, transposition, expansion, contraction). Also known as ASTP or Army Method

From Fenigar & Bresnie (1989): Language: ATS Structure and Use

  • Principles of language Acquisition: 1/ any child who is capable of acquiring a particular human language is capable of acquiring any human language 2/ all children normally acquire their native language in childhood 3/ by the age of six, children can speak language fluently 4/ linguists and psychologists convince that language is not only a matter of imitation
  • Adult input in Language Acquisition: In language acquisition, the important parts= process of imitations, exposure of linguistic input
  • Stages of Language Acquisition 1/ 1 year old – 2 year old : one word, words 2/ 2 -3 : use words in appropriate context, know parts of speech e.g. Mama hurt me 3/ five-year old children: 4-6 words per sentence, adding 20 vocabulary per day e.g. That book doesn’t belong to me.
  • Relationship between language and thought: language and thought appears simultaneously.

From Richard Amato (2003) : Making It Happen.

  • Chomsky’s Contribution: Innatist theory: some language aspects are innate or inborn. The brain is not a blank slate; it contains highly complex structures that come into operation through an interaction process “language organ” called Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
  • LAD is like a computer that has various pre-programmed linguistic sub-systems, through experience, someone makes sub-conscious choices of linguistic menu (e.g. S-V-O, V=S-O, S-O-V, O-S-V)
  • Universal Grammar. It is the basic principles shared by all languages.

From Gasseschumaker (1994): Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction

  • Some important definitions: Native language = first language a child learns Target language = the language being learned SLA = the learning of another language in the environment in which it is spoken FLA = the learning of nonnative language in the environment of someone’s native language
  • The nature of language What need to be learned? 1/ sound systems = phonology 2/ syntax = grammar 3/ morphology and lexicon 4/ semantics = meaning 5/ pragmatics = context

II. Personal Opinion

I think First Language Acquisition and Second Language Acquisition are fundamentally different in that they take place at two different stages of a person’s development (child – adult). With the possible exception of children raised in a bilingual environment, people learn their first language as children, and there is a significant gap in the learning process before they begin to learn their second. Also, children learning their first language have less mental work to do to learn the words for the objects and ideas around them. How Indonesian acquire FLA? In my experiences, Indonesian students shows a great reluctance to stray from their first language, and they rarely take a chance while learning a second language. Comments on LAD: I totally agree. I believe that God blesses us with such a sophisticated brain that can do miracles in helping us learning a language. Although the ‘language organ” is invisible, if we are spiritual people, we can feel that the brain capacity to acquire and process language is very miraculous.

When I’m feeling blue, all I have to do is …

There are many ways people do when they feel very deflated and demotivated. Some may sneak out of work and do crazy shoppings, others may call their loved ones for support and soothing. For me, I usually try to find some good place to eat, sit by myself and try to reflect on all that Allah (SWT) has blessed me with and be grateful.

But that habit, although so soothing, is bad for my body weight. But eating while reflecting has been my habit since I was kid, so it’s hard to stop it.

Here Kitty…..

I’ve never been a big fan of cat since my mom’s allergic to cats. I think cats smell terrible and their litter are disgusting. Cats are so lazy and don’t really care if there are people around or not. But once I discovered that cats are actually really nice and that my kids love them, so I converted. I became tolerable to cats.

Here are some positive things about cats:
They’re cuddly.

Cats are far more cuddly than dogs. Dogs would rather lick your face than give you a hug. Not all cats are cuddly, I know, but many are!

They’re quiet.

Quiet is relative.They may be whining, but for me it won’t be so disturbing compared to a dog’s bark. Cat miaows won’t hurt my ears.

They purrrrrr!

Nothing is more relaxing to me than the gentle rumbling of a contented kitty. When they purr, they let you know that they are happy, relaxed, and loved.

They are relatively low-maintenance

If you have an indoor cat , you don’t need to bother with flea and tick repellents and the like. If your cat eats basic dry food, you can leave for a weekend without worry as long as enough food and water are available.

They won’t bite your kids

I never worry when my kids are playing with cats. Though cats have claws and sharp teeth, they will never hurt your kids, at least that’s what I’ve experienced so far. And I have never heard a story of a cat bites its owner, but surely I know some dogs did it to their masters.

Although I’m tolerable to cats now, but I still think that I’m not a cat person.
Even yesterday when my daughter asked for a Scottish Fold, I shook my head strongly. Scottish Fold is really, very, very cute (their looks really melt my heart since they’re just like a baby’s face, I think)…but I am determined that no more place for kitties in my house. I am just delighted to see my own children, and I don’t want any pets. But, of course my kids can always plays with my neighbor’s cats.

"How can't you deny this sweet Scottish Fold, ibu?" asked my daughter.
“How can’t you deny this sweet Scottish Fold, ibu?” asked my daughter.

Strategies for Developing an Effective Team

What is it?

A team is made up of a group of people working together to achieve a common goal. An effective team has certain characteristics that allow the team members to function more efficiently and productively. An effective team develops ways to share leadership roles and ways to share accountability for their work products, shifting the emphasis from the individual to several individuals within the team. A team also develops a specific team purpose and concrete work products that the members produce together.

How does it work?

Effective teams will have open-ended meetings and develop active problem-solving strategies that go beyond discussing, deciding, and delegating what to do; they do real work together. When necessary, individuals in a team will set aside their own work to assist other members of the team. In a well-functioning team, performance is based not on an individual member’s ability to influence other members, but rather is assessed directly by measuring the work products of the whole team. Rewards based on the whole team’s effort help underscore the importance of team responsibility.

How to use it:

There are several ways in which a supervisor can help clinic managers and staff become a strong team:

  1. Establish objectives together: Define performance objectives with the team and make sure that all team members understand the objectives and what actions will need to be taken to achieve them.
  2. Develop a participatory style: Encourage staff to suggest ways to improve services. Listen to their ideas and acknowledge their points of view. Encourage team members to discuss issues and to find solutions together.
  3. Focus on contributions: Define objectives for having all team members actively contribute to the meeting. Introduce team members to the ways in which they can participate.
  4. Organize meetings: Hold meetings with the whole team during supervisory visits. Discuss supervisory and clinic objectives and encourage the team to discuss their concerns.
  5. Organize the team: Define roles and responsibilities together. If everyone has a clear role, individuals will be less likely to become frustrated and will be more willing to work together. Agree on who will assume leadership roles for different team activities.
  6. Explain the rules: Discuss all norms and standards that have been established for this clinic by the Ministry or the organization. Explain the rationale for these rules and discuss their implications in day-to-day practice.
  7. Promote team responsibility: Encourage members of the clinic team to take responsibility for completing specific tasks and to solve problems as a team. Introduce rewards only if the entire team meets objectives.
  8. Establish time commitments: Schedule when and how each team member will devote time to team work. Determine if team work will require other staff to take on extra work, and, if so, discuss this with all staff and obtain their commitment. Monitor actual vs. planned time carefully and clarify all adjustments in schedule.

Seven Characteristics of an Effective Team

  1. Team members share leadership roles
  2. Team develops own scope of work
  3. Team schedules work to be done and commits to taking time allotted to do work
  4. Team develops tangible work products
  5. Team members are mutually accountable for work products
  6. Performance is based on achieving team products
  7. Problems are discussed and resolved by the team

Teambuilding

Team building refers to a wide range of activities, usually in a business context, for improving team performance. Team building is pursued via a variety of practices, and can range from simple bonding exercises to complex simulations and multi-day team building retreats designed to develop a team (including group assessment and group-dynamic games), usually falling somewhere in between. It generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational development, but can also be applied to sports teams, school groups, and other contexts. Team building is not to be confused with “team recreation” that consists of activities for teams that are strictly recreational. Teambuilding is an important factor in any environment, its focus is to specialize in bringing out the best in a team to ensure self development, positive communication, leadership skills and the ability to work closely together as a team to problem solve.

Work environments tend to focus on individuals and personal goals, with reward & recognition singling out the achievements of individual employees. “How to create effective teams is a challenge in every organization”[1] Team building can also refer to the process of selecting or creating a team from scratch.

History of Team Building

  • Sigmund Freud (1921, 1960) discussed a theory of group dynamic termed identification with the leader which is the foundation of group formation[2].
  • McDougall (1920) tends to be credited for being the first team builder and suggested five different conditions needed for a high functioning group.
  • Taylor (1947) discovered how group norms impact performance.
  • Lewin (1945) founded the Center for Research in Group Dynamics and laboratory studies were conducted.
  • World War II brought increased research/attention to team performance.
  • During the 1970s theory and methodologies were available for large-scale team building. However, work culture tended to not be supportive of teamwork and rather rewarded individual behavior.
  • From the early 1980s until 1990, the United States began to rethink business and viewed teams differently given the economics with inflation rising and significant international debt. Team-based reward systems were implemented.
  • The years 1990 to present are considered the era of high-performance teams. Consulting firms developed methods and tools to help organizations with the transition to team-based organization.
  • Ben Aldham (1979) developed a mathematical rule to explain the improvement in team cohesiveness with relation to team alcohol consumption. It was published in 2003 as the “Rule of Ben”

What does a Team Building Consultant do?

A team building consultant is responsible for each component of a team building intervention. A team building consultant will likely interact with the team once, or for a limited number of times. During this relationship, the consultant will actively work to assess the team, make recommendations, and provide activities (exercises that compose a team building intervention) for the team. These responsibilities usually require a team building consultant to write a proposal after his or her evaluation of the organization and the team, indicating how he or she would go about improving the team’s performance. Once the organization and consultant determine which recommendations to utilize (if not all), the consultant is then responsible for providing a useful intervention that will transfer back into the organizational setting. This responsibility usually requires the consultant to create a detailed plan of events, while allowing for flexibility. After the intervention has been employed, the consultant will typically evaluate the team building program and communicate the results to the organization.

Things a Team Building Consultant might ask

What does your organization want to get out of the exercise? The organization should make their goals clear to a team building consultant or facilitator. This will allow the consultant to more effectively work with the organization to find the best exercises that fit their needs.

What are the needs of the current team? Sometimes an organization will not know exactly what is wrong with a team. The team itself may have some clear ideas about what they need to improve on. Again, a consultant or facilitator will be able to assist the team better if they are able to get this kind of information. With this information, they can tailor the team building and individual exercises to best help the team.

What is the general age of the participants within the team? Some team building exercises are designed for younger groups. These exercises are not appropriate for older groups and could cause the organization and the team members to think that team building is a waste of time. In addition, some exercises are simply beyond some individuals physical capabilities. It is important to make exercises all inclusive, so that all individuals within the teams can participate.Reasons for Team Building

Reasons for Team Building include

  • Improving communication
  • Making the workplace more enjoyable
  • Motivating a team
  • Getting to know each other
  • Getting everyone “onto the same page”, including goal setting
  • Teaching the team self-regulation strategies
  • Helping participants to learn more about themselves (strengths and weaknesses)
  • Identifying and utilizing the strengths of team members
  • Improving team productivity
  • Practicing effective collaboration with team members

What are Team Building Exercises and what is their purpose?

Team building exercises consist of a variety of tasks designed to develop group members and their ability to work together effectively. There are many types of team building activities that range from kids games to games that involve novel complex tasks and are designed for specific needs. There are also more complex team building exercises that are composed of multiple exercises such as ropes courses, corporate drumming and exercises that last over several days. The purpose of team building exercises is to assist teams in becoming cohesive units of individuals that can effectively work together to complete tasks.

Who can benefit from Team Building Exercises?

Team building exercises are useful for all kinds of teams. Some exercises are designed for smaller teams, some for larger teams. Some are designed for new teams, others to focus on specific areas of an established team to be worked on. In addition to this, team building exercises also are for different age groups. In addition to this, some team building exercises are intended primarily for a specific age group. It is possible that some team building activities designed for younger teams being misused with more mature groups has contributed to the negative stigma frequently associated with team building exercises.

Types of Team Building Exercises

Communication Exercise

This type of team building exercise is exactly what it sounds like. Communications exercises are problem solving activities that are geared towards improving communication skills. The issues teams encounter in these exercises are solved by communicating effectively with each other.

• Goal: Create an activity which highlights the importance of good communication in team performance and/or potential problems with communication.

Problem Solving/Decision Making Exercise

Problem Solving/Decision making exercises focus specifically on groups working together to solve difficult problems or make complex decisions. These exercises are some of the most common as they appear to have the most direct link to what employers want their teams to be able to do.

• Goal: Give team a problem in which the solution is not easily apparent or requires the team to come up with a creative solution

Planning/Adaptability Exercise

These exercises focus on aspects of planning and being adaptable to change. These are important things for teams to be able to do when they are assigned complex tasks or decisions. • Goal: Show the importance of planning before implementing a solution

Trust Exercise

A trust exercise involves engaging team members in a way that will induce trust between them. They are sometimes difficult exercises to implement as there are varying degrees of trust between individuals and varying degrees of individual comfort trusting others in general.

• Goal: Create trust between team members

Methods for Team Building

Team building events often take participants out of their regular work context, and use the new context as an enabler of change and development – allowing team participants to get to learn more about each other in a new (non-work) context.

3 Components of a Team Building Exercise

Part 1: Instructions

This part of a Team Building exercise involves introducing the participants to the instructions for the exercise.

Part 2: Activity

This part of the Team Building exercise is the exercise itself. This is when participants utilize the instructions and begin to participate in the actual activity.

Part 3: Debriefing

This is likely the most important part of a team building exercise. The facilitator will close the exercise with a review of the purpose for the exercise and how the team accomplished it. A debriefing is important to reiterate the purpose of the exercise and to keep participants focused on the positive outcomes from the exercise.

The methods of doing this vary widely, including

  • simple social activities – to encourage team members to spend time together
  • group bonding sessions – company sponsored fun activities to get to know team members (sometimes intending also to inspire creativity)
  • personal development activities – individual programs given to groups (sometimes physically challenging)
  • team development activities – group-dynamic games designed to help individuals discover how they approach a problem, how the team works together, and discover better methods
  • psychological analysis of team roles, and training in how to work better together

(and combinations of the above)

Team interaction involves “soft” interpersonal skills including communication, negotiation, leadership, and motivation – in contrast to technical skills directly involved with the job at hand. Depending on the type of team building, the novel tasks can encourage or specifically teach interpersonal team skills to increase team performance.

Models of Team Behavior

Team building generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational development. The related field of team management refers to techniques, processes and tools for organizing and coordinating a team towards a common goal – as well as the inhibitors to teamwork and ways to remove, mitigate or overcome them.

Several well-known approaches to team management have come out of academic work.

  • The forming-storming-norming-performing model posits four stages of new team development to reach high performance. Some team activities are designed to speed up (or improve) this process in the safe team development environment.
  • Belbin Team Types can be assessed to gain insight into an individual’s natural behavioral tendencies in a team context, and can be used to create and develop better functioning teams.

Team Member Qualities

Emotional stability

  • Adjustment
  • Self-esteem

Extraversion

  • Dominance
  • Affiliation
  • Social Perceptiveness
  • Expressivity

Openness

  • Flexibility

Agreeableness

  • Trust
  • Cooperation

In breaking down these dimensions, it was generalized that past research has been consistent when it mentions that emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are all related to team effectiveness. Within extraversion, dominance was found to be a negative attribute in team members where they are not working independently and not collaborating with others. (Driskell & Salas, 1992). Adjustment and flexibility were noted to be important facets for team members to have where adjustment to situations is needed. Clearly for teams to be successful there has to be a balance between the personality dimensions. This provides well-roundedness for a person to bring to a team.

Organizational Development

In the organizational development context, a team may embark on a process of self-assessment to gauge its effectiveness and improve its performance. To assess itself, a team seeks feedback from group members to find out both its current strengths and weakness..

To improve its current performance, feedback from the team assessment can be used to identify gaps between the desired state and the current state, and to design a gap-closure strategy. Team development can be the greater term containing this assessment and improvement actions, or as a component of organizational development.

Building a New Team

The process for creating a new team is different from developing an existing team.

Topchik identifies 10 steps for building a new project team [3]

  1. Get upper-management support
  2. Define the purpose of your team
  3. Identify time frames
  4. Select team members
  5. Classify team-member openings
  6. Share the overall purpose
  7. Decide team name
  8. Create the team mission statement and goals
  9. Determine core team issues
  10. Establish team norms

Self Managed Work Teams

Self-managing work teams (SMWTs) have been rising in popularity since the beginning of the 1990s. These team members are responsible for themselves. Although more organizations are implementing SMWTs, employees have been resisting them. Three variables at the individual-level are potential reasons for resistance to SMWTs. These variables include trust, cultural values and low tolerance for change.

Managers should implement SMWTs with procedural and distributive justice. Also, managers should address concerns regarding trust, and accountability. They should provide clarity regarding who is responsible for what and how the employees’ careers and opportunities for development will be affected. Managers should work to encourage employees having a positive organizational outlook.

Things Related to Team Building

Coaching

Mentoring

Team Training

Cross Training

Coordination & Adaptation Training

Guided Team Self-Correction

Succession Planning

Icebreakers

Collaboration

Notes and references

  1. ^ How to Build Powerfully Successful Work Teams
  2. ^ Freud, Sigmund: Group Psychology and Analysis of the Ego, 1921/1960.
  3. ^ Topchik, Gary S.; The First-Time Manager’s Guide To Team Building, 2007

Cohn, J.M., Khurana, R., Reeves, L. (2005). Growing talent as if your business depended on it. Harvard Business Review, October, p. 1-9.

Driskell, James E., Goodwin, Gerald F., Salas, Eduardo, O’Shea, Patrick G., & (2006). What Makes a Good Team Player? Personality and Team Effectiveness. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice. 10, 249-271.

Hughes, R.L., Ginnett, R.C., & Curphy, G.J. (2009). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Humphrey, Stephen E., Morgeson, Frederick P., Mannor, Michael J., & (2009). Developing a Theory of the Strategic Core of Teams: A Role Composition Model of Team Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 48-61.

Kirkman, B, L., Jones, R. G., & Shapiro, D. L. (2000). Why do employees resist teams? Examining the “resistance barrier” to work team effectiveness. International Journal of Conflict Management, 11, 74-92.

Klein, C., DiazGranados, D., Salas, E., Le, H., Burke, C.S., Lyons, R., & Goodwin, G.F. (2009) Does team building work? Small Group Research, 40(2), 181-222.

Lussier, R.N. & Achua, C.F. (2007). Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development (3rd ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.

Leonard, H. S., & Freedman, A. M. (2000). From scientific management through fun and games to high-performing teams: A historical perspective on consulting to team-based organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 52, 3-19.

LePine, J. A. (2003). Team adaptation and postchange performance: Effects of team composition in terms of member’s cognitive abilities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 27-39.

Miller, B. C. (2007). Quick activities to improve your team: How to run a successful team- building activity. The Journal for Quality and Participation. 28-32.

Newstrom, J.W., Scannell E.E., (1998). The big book of team building games: Trust building activities, team spirit exercises, and other fun things to do. Two Penn Plaza, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1997). Methods, tools, and strategies for team training. In M. A. Quinones & A. Ehrenstein (Eds.), Training for a rapidly changing workplace: Applications of psychological research (pp. 249–279). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Salas, E., Nichols, D. R., & Driskell, J. E. (2007). Testing three team training strategies in intact teams: A meta-analysis. Small Group Research, 38, 471-488.

Senécal, J., Loughead, T. M., & Bloom, G. A. (2008). A season-long team-building intervention: Examining the effect of team goal setting on cohesion. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30. 186-199.

Svyantek, D.J., Goodman, S.A., Benz, L.L., & Gard, J.A. (1999). The relationship between organizational characteristics and team building success. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14(2), 265-283.

Williams, S. D., Graham, T. S., and Baker, B. (2003). Evaluating outdoor experiential training for leadership and team building. The Journal of Management Development,22(1), 45–59.

Wright, J. (2005). Workplace coaching: what’s it all about? Work, 24 (3), 325-328.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_building

Just to Share a Little about TB

I teach teambuilding (TB) for Diklat Prajabatan, and I’d like to share the theories of TB I’ve browsed from several sources.

I. From the Henley Management Centre

The theory is developed by analysing what made teams successful during a series of management games. During this analysis, nine team roles were identified.In the combination of all nine roles, however, generally two or three will be more prominent. These nine roles can be broken down into three categories as follows:

Cerebral

– Plant, Specialist and Monitor Evaluator

Action

– Shaper, Implementer and Completer Finisher

People

– Coordinator, Teamworker and Resource Investigator

II. From The Nine Belbin Team Roles

There are nine team roles, i.e.

1. Plant
Creative, imaginative, unorthodox. Solves difficult problems. However tends to ignore incidentals and be too immersed to communicate effectively.

2. Resource Investigator
Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities and networks with others. However can be over optimistic and loses interest after initial enthusiasm has waned.

3. Co-ordinator
Belbin’s Co-ordinator is a mature, confident and a natural chairperson. Clarifies goals, promotes decision-making and delegates effectively. However can be seen as manipulative and controlling. Can over delegate by off loading personal work.

4. Shaper
Challenging, dynamic, thrives under pressure. Jumps hurdles using determination and courage. However can be easily provoked and ignorant of the feelings of others.

5. Monitor Evaluator
Even tempered, strategic and discerning. Sees all the options and judges accurately. However can lack drive and lack inspired leadership qualities.

6. Team Worker
Co-operative, relationship focused, sensitive and diplomatic. Belbin described the Team Worker as a good listener who builds relationships and who dislikes confrontation. However can be indecisive in a crisis.

7. Implementer
Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Acts on ideas. However can be inflexible and slow to see new opportunities.

8. Completer-Finisher
Conscientious and anxious to get the job done. An eye for detail, good at searching out the errors. Finishes and delivers on time however can be a worrier and reluctant to delegate.

9. Specialist
Single minded self starter. Dedicated and provides specialist knowledge. The rarer the supplier of this knowledge, said Belbin, the more dedicated the specialist. However can be stuck in their niche with little interest in the world outside it and dwell on technicalities.

III. From Abraham Maslow

Abraham Maslow postulates the hierarchy of needs theory.

Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) was an American psychologist and behavioural scientist who also spent some of his career working in industry.

His book, Motivation and Personality, was published in 1954 and his theory has become an important part of the study of workplace motivation.

Maslow saw human needs as a hierarchy which was represented as a triangle for ease of understanding. The first need, Survival, is placed at the bottom.

Maslow surmised that people could not commit to moving on to the next need until the previous need was fully attained.

Once the needs were attained they would cease to be a motivator, so motivated people would start to look to the next need in order to satisfy themselves.

If a manager can see where an employee is in the hierarchy then they will understand how best to motivate that individual.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a useful tool to consider the nature of motivation. In Twyla Dell’s book How to Motivate People (Kogan Page 1988) she matched ten work linked qualities to Maslow’s work to help readers to link the theory to more familiar concepts:

  • Survival
    Efficient managers
    Employees who think for themselves
  • Security
    See end result of work
    Interesting work
  • Belonging
    Be listened to
    Be informed
  • Prestige
    Respect
    Recognition
  • Self-Fulfilment
    Challenge
    Skill development

IV. From John Adair

John Adair (b.1934) is one of Britain’s foremost authorities on leadership in organisations.

Before Adair and arguably still today people associated leadership with the so called ‘Great Man Theory’.

One charismatic individual who used his or her personal power and rhetoric to mobilise a group.

Adair approached leadership from a more practical and simple angle; by describing what leaders have to do and the actions they need to take.

His model was figuratively based on three overlapping circles representing:-

  1. Achieve the task.
  2. Build and maintain the team.
  3. Develop the individual.

This creates a clear distinction between leadership and management.

Creating charismatic ‘Great Man’ leaders is difficult and cannot be relied on.

You cannot guarantee that such a person can be developed and, once developed, that they will be reliable.

Adair’s theory is more practical and shows that leadership can be taught and that it is a transferable skill.

The three circles in Adair’s model overlap because:-

  1. The task needs a team because one person alone cannot accomplish it.
  2. If the team needs are not met the task will suffer and the individuals will not be satisfied.
  3. If the individual needs are not met the team will suffer and performance of the task will be impaired.

Leadership Functions

Adair lists eight Leadership Functions required to achieve success.

These need to be constantly developed and honed to ensure success.

  1. Defining the task: Using SMART goals (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-Constrained) to set a clear objective.
  2. Planning: An open minded, positive and creative search for alternatives. Contingencies should be planned for and plans should be tested.
  3. Briefing: Team briefings by the leader are a basic function and essential in order to create the right atmosphere, foster teamwork and motivate each individual.
  4. Controlling: Leaders need self-control, good control systems in place and effective delegation and monitoring skills in order to get maximum results from minimum resources.
  5. Evaluating: Assess consequences, evaluate performance, appraise and train individuals.
  6. Motivating: Adair identifies eight basic rules for motivating people* in his book Effective Motivation (Guildford: Talbot Adair Press, 1987). Adair also created the 50:50 rule which states that 50% of motivation comes from within a person and 50% from his or her environment and particularly the leadership they encounter.
  7. Organising: Good leaders need to be able to organise themselves, their team and their organisation.
  8. Setting an example: The best leaders naturally set a good example. If effort needs to be made it will slip and a bad example is noticed more than a good example.

Motivating Your Team

The eight rules for motivating people:-

  1. Be motivated yourself.
  2. Select motivated people.
  3. Treat each person as an individual.
  4. Set realistic but challenging targets.
  5. Understand that progress itself motivates.
  6. Create a motivating environment.
  7. Provide relevant rewards.
  8. Recognise success.

John Adair’s work is in line with motivational theorists such as Maslow, McGregor and Herzberg.

He emphasises the need for development of the team and team building.

This can be achieved through team building events and using theories such as that of Belbin.

Where Adair identifies the need, Belbin provides one of the tools.

V. From MBTI

The MBTI was developed by Isabel Briggs-Myers (1897 – 1979) and her mother Katherine Cook-Briggs. It is based on the work of Carl Jung and particularly his book Psychological Types. Essentially within the MBTI there are 16 types and a survey will tell individuals which type they are most like.

In a team building setting the objective of experiencing the MBTI might be: ‘to raise awareness and increase understanding of yourself and others in your team and to value the differences between you.

In MBTI there are four polar extremes with a description at each end. These are:-

  • Extrovert to Introvert (E to I)
  • Sensation to Intuition (S to N)
  • Thinking to Feeling (T to F)
  • Judging to Perceiving (J to P)

In completing the Myers Briggs Type Indicator a participant will end up with a score between the two polar extremes that will define their preference.

A person will have a tendency to be either an Extrovert or an Introvert but cannot be both.

At the end of the survey each participant will have a profile, for example ESTJ if the preferences are those on the left of the above list.

Thus there are a total of 16 different end profiles.

The following are pointers to the behaviours associated with the four Myers Briggs functions relevant to team building and communication.

There is much more to each of the functions than is covered here, indeed whole books have been written about the differences between introverts and extroverts.

The following are the short descriptions the four functions:.

Extroverts & Introverts

Extroverts do not know what they are thinking until they say it.

As they speak things become clearer to them, so they may change direction as they speak.

Introverts, on the other hand, need to think things through.

If immediate discussion is thrust open them they become uncomfortable and confused, as they need to go away and consider.

Sensors & Intuititives

Sensors use specifics such as facts, dates and times.

Problem definition is important and they are irritated by vagueness.

Intuitives see specifics as limiting and look at the big picture.

They may agree with specific details presented by an ‘S’ but can only understand the ‘whole’.

Thinkers & Feelers

Thinkers will set their emotions to one side so that their feelings will not enter into the logical analysis of a situation.

They will not make an immediate decision, preferring to step back from a situation to analyse facts and information.

Feelers are ‘people people’ and judge situations on a personal level taking into account personal values.

‘Fs’ are often torn because they are able to see both sides of any situation.

Judgers & Perceivers

Judgers favour exactness.

They want to know how long things will take, stay on track and they seek closure.

They will make an appointment for 4.30 and arrive at 4.29.

Perceivers will put off the final decision for as long as possible.

They favour tolerance and open time frames.

Interpretation

People polarise towards these preferences in varying degrees.

In some people the preference is so small as to barely influence their behaviour.

In others it is so strong that it is defines their approach to life.

The Myers Briggs Type Indicator shows this and helps people to understand themselves and the others within their team.

The interaction between the Myers Briggs types will shortly be covered on this website; for example how ‘Es’ see ‘Is’ and vice versa.

Descriptions of the 16 types will also be added; for example ESTJ, INFP, ESFP etc.

VI. From The Strength Deployment Inventory

The following article on Strength Deployment Inventory®, or SDI®, has been contributed by team building facilitator PJ Stevens who specialises in delivering this programme. Dr Elias Porter originally created the concept in the 1960s.

The session is a highly practical mix of brief presentations, experiential learning, change, and empowerment. It is skills focused and will leave the participants with real understanding, proven techniques and appreciation of rewarding relationships.

Being skilled in relationships is fundamental to business success and impacts directly on productivity, morale and bottom line.

How Strength Deployment Inventory® is delivered

By enabling participants to:

  • Make the link between relationship skills and business success
  • Capitalize on the diversity of styles in the work place
  • Communicate effectively
  • Reduce stress and conflict at work

Key Concepts

  1. People are our/your working Environment
    Discover how vital relationship skills are to business success
    The cost of neglecting your people
    Create a high performance environment
  2. Understand People
    Why people behave as they do
    The seven motivational styles
    Discover your own personal drivers
  3. Recognise Different Styles
    What can you learn from body language, hobbies, pets and work place?
    Predict how others will behave
    Understand insecurity, self-doubt and de-motivation
    Listening
  4. Create Rapport
    Match the other’s style
    Behaviours that bring dramatic results
    Practical tips to get along with difficult people
  5. Handle Conflict
    Understand why people can be difficult
    Discover your behaviour pattern in conflict
    Recognize individual needs in conflict
    How to deal with the angry customer/team member
    The secrets of lasting agreement
  6. Manage your impression
    How does your style of working come across to others?
    Some practical ways to close the perception gap
    Actively manage your impression for better results
  7. Feedback not biteback
    Practical things to do when there are conflict and perception gaps
    Feedback v criticism
    Develop competency in giving and receiving feedback
  8. Influence with integrity
    Discover your current persuasion strategy
    Learn five key processes of influence
    Beware of fishing with vindaloo chicken
  9. Organizational implications
    Communicate organisational change and get commitment
    Easy steps to improve motivation and job satisfaction
    Become a facilitative leader and empower your team
  10. Application
    Implications in your professional life
    Implications in your personal life
    Decide action agenda

VII. Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor (1906 -1964) was a lecturer at Harvard University and became the first Sloan Fellows Professor at MIT. His Theory X and Theory Y was detailed in The Human Side of Enterprise, published in 1960.

Essentially Theory X and Theory Y describe two opposing views of people at work that will influence management style. Managers can be said to follow either view of their workforce.

Theory X is often said to describe a traditional view of direction and control.

Theory Y implies a more self directed workforce that takes an interest in the goals of their organisation and integrates some of their own goals into these.

Theory X

Theory X assumes that: –

  • The average person dislikes work and will avoid it unless directly supervised.
  • Employees must be coerced, controlled and directed to ensure that organisational objectives are met.
  • The threat of punishment must exist within an organisation.
  • In fact people prefer to be managed in this way so that they avoid responsibility.
  • Theory X assumes that people are relatively unambitious and their prime driving force is the desire for security.

Theory Y

Theory Y effectively takes the opposite extreme.

It assumes that: –

  • Employees are ambitious, keen to accept greater responsibility and exercise both self-control and direction.
  • Employees will, in the right conditions, work toward organisational objectives and that commitment will in itself be a reward for so doing.
  • Employees will exercise their imagination and creativity in their jobs if given the chance and this will give an opportunity for greater productivity.
  • Theory Y assumes that the average human being will, under the right conditions, not only accept responsibility but also seek more.
  • Lack of ambition and the qualities of Theory X are not inherent human characteristics but learned in working environments that suffocate or do not promote Theory Y behaviours.

Links with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow viewed John McGregor as a mentor and was a supporter of his theory and each utilised each other’s theories in their own work.

McGregor grouped Maslow’s hierarchy into ‘lower order’ Theory X needs and ‘higher order’ Theory Y needs, suggesting that those behaviours at the top of his hierarchy linked with Theory Y behaviours.

Criticism of Theory X / Theory Y

Nowadays McGregor’s theory is seen as outdated, representing two extremes.

Theory X is perhaps visible in low paid or menial work but employees in those situations will move on in search of positions with Theory Y conditions if they are motivated.

Personal development, management training and even general perceptions of behaviour are against a Theory X outlook towards work.

There is no doubt that this outlook would have been more prevalent in the 1960s when McGregor created his theory.

Before he died McGregor started working on a new Theory that he called Theory Z to address these criticisms.

Unfortunately he died before this could be widely published and the ideas have since faded from mainstream management theory.

They were, however, landmark ideas at their time and now form an important part of the historical study of management theory.

VIII. From The Social Identity Theory

The Social identity approach is in stark contrast to individualistic theories such as Belbin’s team role theory. Primarily established by Henri Tajfel and his colleagues in the early 1970’s this theory asserts that we must do more than study the psychology of individuals as individuals, but must understand how, when and why individuals define themselves in terms of their group memberships and how these memberships as a consequence effect the behaviour of employees within organizations.

The Theory

This theory is based on the now famous minimal group studies.

Tajfel found that even when individuals were grouped in terms of the most trivial of criteria (e.g. their preference for abstract painters) group members displayed in-group favouritism, by awarding more points to in-group members.

Individuals were found to display this bias even when by doing so they reduced their own individual economic gain.

From these studies Tajfel concluded that this process of categorizing oneself as a group member gives an individual’s behaviour a distinct meaning, creating a positively valued social identity.

This group identity then becomes an integral aspect of an individual’s sense of ‘who they are’.

As a consequence of this new found identity individuals want to see ‘us’ as different from and better than ‘them’ and hence display in-group favouritism in order to enhance self-esteem.

However, the social identity theory does not disregard the impact of individual differences completely.

Tajfel asserted that behaviour can be represented in terms of a bipolar continuum.

At the interpersonal pole behaviour is determined by the character and motivations of the individual as an individual and at the opposite, inter-group pole behaviour is determined by an individual’s group memberships.

Where individuals place themselves on this continuum depends on interplay between social and psychological factors.

Social and Psychological Factors

The psychological factors depend on individual’s belief structures, which are determined by the relevant social structure.

In this way, an individual will display interpersonal behaviour if they hold social mobility beliefs in that they perceive the boundaries between groups within their organizations (e.g., between those of low and high status) as permeable.

If however the boundaries are perceived as impermeable individuals will display inter-group behaviour hence relying on social change beliefs.

For example if a woman perceives the boundaries between men and women in her organization as permeable, she may try and advance within the organization disassociating from her gender in-group and pursuing her own individual goals.

In this case she is utilising social mobility beliefs, her behaviour is positioned at the interpersonal pole of the continuum and she identifies herself in terms of her individual differences.

However if she perceives the group boundaries as impermeable she is unable to better herself through moving between groups and hence relies on creating a positive social identity for ‘women’ in general perhaps fighting for equality.

Therefore her behaviour lies at the inter-group pole; she is relying on social change beliefs and is identifying with the social identity she shares with other women.

Conclusion

The extent to which individuals define themselves as individuals or as group members depends heavily on the politics inherent within their organizational culture.

An individual’s behaviour and teamwork cannot be predicted solely from their idiosyncratic characteristics but is also dependant on the social context which determines the belief structures they utilize.

This summary is extremely brief and does not do justice to the complexity of this theory which comprises of an additional approach known as the self categorization theory.

The social identity theory has been applied to every aspect of organizational psychology and is supported by both archival and experimental research.


IX. From Tuckman’s FSNP

This model was first developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. It is one of the best known team development theories and has formed the basis of many further ideas since its conception.

Tuckman’s theory focuses on the way in which a team tackles a task from the initial formation of the team through to the completion of the project. Tuckman later added a fifth phase; Adjourning and Transforming to cover the finishing of a task.

Tuckman’s theory is particularly relevant to team building challenges as the phases are relevant to the completion of any task undertaken by a team.

One of the very useful aspects of team building challenges contained within a short period of time is that teams have an opportunity to observe their behaviour within a measurable time frame.

Often teams are involved in projects at work lasting for months or years and it can be difficult to understand experiences in the context of a completed task.

Forming

The team is assembled and the task is allocated. Team members tend to behave independently and although goodwill may exist they do not know each other well enough to unconditionally trust one another. Time is spent planning, collecting information and bonding.

Storming

The team starts to address the task suggesting ideas. Different ideas may compete for ascendancy and if badly managed this phase can be very destructive for the team. Relationships between team members will be made or broken in this phase and some may never recover. In extreme cases the team can become stuck in the Storming phase.

If a team is too focused on consensus they may decide on a plan which is less effective in completing the task for the sake of the team. This carries its own set of problems. It is essential that a team has strong facilitative leadership in this phase.

Norming

As the team moves out of the Storming phase they will enter the Norming phase. This tends to be a move towards harmonious working practices with teams agreeing on the rules and values by which they operate.

In the ideal situation teams begin to trust themselves during this phase as they accept the vital contribution of each member to the team. Team leaders can take a step back from the team at this stage as individual members take greater responsibility.

The risk during the Norming stage is that the team becomes complacent and loses either their creative edge or the drive that brought them to this phase.

Performing

Not all teams make it to the Performing phase, which is essentially an era of high performance. Performing teams are identified by high levels if independence, motivation, knowledge and competence. Decision making is collaborative and dissent is expected and encouraged as there will be a high level of respect in the communication between team members.

Adjourning & Transforming

This is the final phase added by Tuckman to cover the end of the project and the break up of the team. Some call this phase Mourning, although this is a rather depressing way of looking at the situation.

More enlightened managers have called Progressive Resources in to organise a celebratory event at the end of a project and members of such a team will undoubtedly leave the project with fond memories of their experience.

It should be noted that a team can return to any phase within the model if they experience a change, for example a review of their project or goals or a change in members of a team.

In a successful team when a member leaves or a new member joins the team will revert to the Forming stage, but it may last for a very short time as the new team member is brought into the fold.

X. The Color Works

The Colour Works uses a psychological model of behaviours that helps teams to understand similarities and differences in order to become more effective. It is all made up of 4 distinct colour energies of behaviour, each of which have distinct characteristics.

The Colour Works model is devised by Insights Learning & Development, is designed to measure your own personal levels of each, providing a unique personal colour profile.

The Format

Questionnaire

The first stage requires delegates to complete a thought-provoking 20 minute online questionnaire.

The Colour Works uses a colourful model of human behaviours devised in 1988 by Insights Learning & Development. It is the strictest adherent to Carl Jung’s work on Psychological Types of all personality profiling systems.

The system’s beauty lies in its accessibility, memorability and hence applicability – after even a half-day workshop, lessons learned (how to adapt your style to build more effective relationships with those who are ‘not like you’) can easily be put into practice.

The language of colour also becomes a powerful, shared tool for colleagues to use to improve their understanding of differences.

The Online Questionnaire

A 25-frame online evaluator (taking just 20 minutes to complete) measures our preferences for the use of all 4 colour energies.

We will all have a dominant, a secondary, a tertiary and a least preferred energy.

This detailed questionnaire is designed to measure these levels as it uses a sliding scale of responses rather than a simple YES or NO.

The resulting profile is comprehensive – a minimum of 24 pages covering amongst other things strengths, weaknesses, stress points, blind spots, management style, preferred environment, communication needs, value to the team – often scarily insightful and unique to the profilee.

Colour Works Theory

The energies are underpinned by Jung’s psychological preferences – introversion to extraversion, feeling to thinking and sensing to intuition (judging to perceiving was a preference identified by Isabel Briggs-Myers but not included in Jung’s original work) – and you are not labelled as being one or the other.

For example, an even preference for ‘fiery red’ and ‘cool blue’ energy would probably indicate a preference neither for introversion nor extraversion but right between the two.

The Colour Works Wheel

The order and intensity of your colour preferences places you on a 72-type wheel, made up of 8 archetypes, as follows:

the colourworks 2nd wheel

each with its own attributes, style, needs and frustrations.

The rest of your team can be plotted on the same wheel, allowing possible gaps in performance and difficult relationships to be understood and worked on.

THE DIRECTOR

Has the ability to focus on results. They decide what it is they want from life and set a strategy to achieve it. Their natural assertiveness means they will push both themselves and others to achieve goals. They are not put off by setbacks.

THE MOTIVATOR

Has enormous enthusiasm that he spreads to those around them. Their drive to succeed gives them a high level of motivation to achieve their dreams. They are not easily put off and find it easy to think positively about every situation.

THE INSPIRER

Has well-developed people skills and has a constant need to enjoy interactions with others. They are persuasive and their quick minds produce creative solutions to others’ problems.

THE HELPER

Has a genuine desire to help others and put their needs first. This makes them flexible and adaptable with a natural ability to share ideas and knowledge.

THE SUPPORTER

Has a true team approach. Their expert listening skills can uncover others’ true needs and they are loyal to both their colleagues and their organisation.

THE CO-ORDINATOR

Can pull all the loose ends together to organise themselves and others in a structured approach. Their planning and time management skills make them thorough and reliable.

THE OBSERVER

Can write the book on product knowledge required for their job. When others need the facts to make a decision, they know them. They set the standards for others and analyse and collect the data.

THE REFORMER

Has a natural desire to monitor and judge performance. Their own approach is disciplined and logical and they back this up with a determination to succeed.