Widyaiswara has the main function as teaching agent to all trainees in governmental institution. In this sense, widyaiswara is similar to teacher in the nature of the task to perform. This posting is aimed at discussing what teacher’s competence is and enriching our knowledge (as widyaiswara) on the topic.
As learning agent, all educators, such as trainers/WI, teachers, etc should possess several competences. A competence is an integrated mastery of knowledge, skill, and attitude which is reflected in the working performance. Kepmendiknas (The Decree of Minister of National Education) No. 045/U/2002 defines competence as a set of intelligent and responsible acts in conducting all the duties of a certain job. So, teacher’s competence can be described as a unity of knowledge, skill and attitude which is reflected through intelligent and responsible acts in conducting duties as learning agents. UUGD (The Law of Teachers and Professors) and PP (Government Regulation) No. 19/2005 state that teacher’s competence includes personality, pedagogy, professionalism, and social competence. Those four teacher’s competences as well as the sub competence and the essential indicators will be discussed as follows:
Personality competence is a personal ability which reflects firm, stable, mature, wise, and authoritative traits. Having personality competence also means becoming the role model for the learners and possessing good morality. Specifically, those sub competence will be described below:
1. A firm and stable personality sub competence: behaving according to the law norm; behaving according to the social norm; being proud as a teacher; and possessing a consistency in behaving according to the norm.
2. A mature personality competence: performing independence in acting as a teacher and having working ethos as a teacher.
3. A wise personality sub competence: performing benevolent attitude towards learners, school, and society, and showing open-minded view and behavior.
4. An authoritative personality sub competence: having a positive attitude towards the learners and having respectful behavior.
5. A good morality and becoming the role model sub competence: behaving according to religious norm (belief in God, being honest, being sincere, and helping others) and possessing behavior that can be adhered by learners.
Pedagogy competence includes understanding the learners, designing and conducting the learning process, evaluating learning outcomes, and developing learner’s actualization of their potentials. Specifically, each sub competence is described as the following essential indicators.
1. Sub competence of understanding the learners: understanding the learners by employing the principles of cognitive development; understanding the learners by employing the principles of personality; and identifying pre-learning preparation of the learners.
2. Sub competence of designing the learning process, including understanding the educational framework for the sake of learning process: understanding the education framework; applying the study and learning theories; determining the learning strategy based on the learners’ characteristics, the desired competence, and the teaching material; and arranging the learning plans based on the selected strategy.
3. Sub competence of conducting learning process: organizing the learning setting; and conducting a conducive learning process.
4. Sub competence of designing and conducting learning evaluation: designing and conducting evaluation on the learning process and the learning result integrally using certain methods; analyzing the result of the learning process and the result of evaluation to determine the level of learning mastery; and the employment of the result of evaluation for the improvement of the quality of the learning program.
5. Sub competence of developing learner’s actualization of their potentials: facilitating the learners to develop their academic potentials and facilitating them to develop their non-academic potentials.
Professional competence is a broad and deep mastery of learning materials, which includes the mastery of subject curriculum materials and scientific substances related to the curriculum, and also the mastery of the structure and methodology. Every sub competence has these following essential indicators.
1. Sub competence of mastering the scientific substances related to subject curriculum: understanding the teaching material in the school curriculum; understanding the scientific structure, concept and methodology which is coherent with the teaching material; understanding the conceptual relation among the related subjects; and applying the scientific concepts in daily life.
2. Sub competence in mastery of scientific construction and methodology: mastering the research procedures and critical review to deepen the knowledge/subject materials.
Social competence is the teacher’s ability to communicate and to live in harmony with students, colleague teacher, education staffs, parents, and the school environments effectively. The social competence comprises sub competences with these following essential indicators.
1. being able to communicate effectively with students and to live in harmony with them
2. being able to communicate effectively and to live in harmony with colleague teacher and school staffs
3. being able to communicate effectively and to live in harmony with parents or foster parents and people in the school environment.
It is necessary to note that those four competences (personality, pedagogy, professionalism and social) should be integrated in the real practice; one competence cannot be separated from the others. The above distinctions are made for easier understanding of the concept. Some experts said that the term professional competence is like an “umbrella”, because it includes other competences. On the other hand, the mastery of teaching material in deep and extensive way is more appropriate to be called the mastery of the teaching material resources (disciplinary content) or often labeled as skill subjects.
then, to view a teacher with competence refers to the expectation that he/she should possess
(1) an understanding of student’s unique characteristics,
(2) a mastery of teaching materials,
(3) the ability to conduct teaching and learning process, and
(4) the willingness to develop his/her professionalism and personality in a continuing process.
It needs a lengthy process to master all those four competence. And definitely, integrity is the key to drive all teachers to obtain them.