Where is Our Nationality?

Baru saja saya dapat pemberitahuan dari Panitia Peringatan 17 Agustus di kompleks perumahan saya. Yang mengejutkan adalah penarikan iuran sejumlah Rp.150.00,00 untuk semua aktivitas peringatan dalam satu hari, dan yang lebih mengagetkan adalah susunan acara yang sudah disepakati warga (saya kebetulan tidak bisa datang pada malam rapat itu karena sedang mengajar di LPMP Pasar Minggu). Acaranya yang membuat saya miris: lomba joget, suap-suapan pisang, panggung gembira, pokoknya menurut saya banyak unsur kekonyolan dan hura-hura. Masih mending jika ada lomba atau adu ketangkasan dan ketrampilan, misalnya pertandingan olahraga atau lomba menghias tumpeng, lha makan pisang??

Seperti inikah cara kita memperingati kemerdekaan bangsa yang diperjuangkan dengan darah dan harta para pejuang kita? Saya merasa akhir-akhir ini bangsa kita semakin jauh dari rasa kebangsaan. Saya pikir ada beberapa faktor penyebabnya:

1. Pendidikan

Pendidikan sejarah terutama tidak mengakar pada generasi muda kita. Banyak mahasiswa saya jika diminta menyebutkan lima belas saja nama pahlawan kemerdekaan kita, belum dapat sepuluh nama sudah meringis. Juga pendidikan ahlak, budi pekerti, maupun agama yang kurang membekas pada diri kita. Sebagai orang berbudi, tentu kita malu untuk melakukan hal yang tidak berguna, sia-sia, ataupun malah merendahkan martabat kita. Melakukan kekonyolan sama saja membuat kita kelihatan bodoh, bapak-ibu guru kita tentu tidak mengajarkan yang seperti itu kan?

2. Kepemimpinan Nasional

Bangsa kita memang sedang mengalami krisis kepemimpinan. Politik kita yang amburadul, ekonomi kita semakin mengarah ke liberalisme dan kapitalisme, banyak terjadi kekerasan dan pelanggaran hukum yang tidak dituntaskan dengan adil, dan terlebih lagi semakin dipaksanya kita untuk menerima nilai-nilai universal (karena alasan globalisasi) tetapi malah mengatasi nilai-nilai nasional kita. Dimana pemimpin kita?

3. Kepribadian dan Wawasan Nasional

Bangsa Indonesia dahulu terkenal dengan sifat-sifat yang luhur, salah satunya yaitu perikemanusiaan. Kita cinta segala yang memanusiakan bangsa kita. Tetapi belakangan ini rasa bangga dan cinta tanah air mulai meluntur. Satu hal lagi , secara verbal saja kita mengakui Ketuhanan YME, tetapi pada prakteknya kita takut melawan kemusyrikan, pembodohan, dan pelemahan. Where is our sense of pride as Indonesian?

Saya dalam mendidik anak tidak cuma membuali mereka dengan pelajaran sekolah yang kurang di-update dengan situasi sekarang. Misalnya saya katakan pada mereka bahwa tanah air kita luas dari Sabang sampai Merauke, tetapi setiap hari batas wilayah kita dicaplok oleh negara tetangga. Bumi kita kaya tetapi sumber mineral kita sebagian besar dikelola atau dikuasai asing. Jumlah penduduk kita banyak tetapi banyak juga yang tidak mengenyam pendidikan, menjadi pengangguran, atau mengalami gizi buruk. Apa yang saya tanamkan pada mereka membuat mereka (yang notabene masih kecil-kecil) jadi berpikir dan sedikit memunculkan rasa keprihatinan nasional mereka. Bagaimana Anda mendidik putra-putri Anda?

Ditulis untuk mengingatkan generasi kita betapa mundurnya kita belakangan ini.

Membuat Blog di Microsoft Word

Salah satu penyedia layanan untuk membuat blog secara gratis adalah Blogger. Situs Web yang telah diambil alih oleh Google ini dapat diakses di alamat http://www.blogger.com. Di situ, Anda tinggal mendaftar. Selesainya pendaftaran, Anda bisa langsung membuat blog, bikin tulisan, dan “menerbitkannya”.

Untuk pendaftaran, Anda memang harus online. Akan tetapi, untuk menulis Anda tidak perlu online supaya bisa menghemat biaya ber-Internet. Cara yang paling sederhana adalah dengan menulis blog dulu di penyunting teks, seperti Notepad atau Microsoft Word, secara offline. Kalau sudah selesai, baru online, kemudian buka situs Web layanan blog, login, lalu copy-paste hasil tulisan yang ada di penyunting teks.

Kita sebut cara yang barusan disebut adalah cara manual. Cara yang akan dijelaskan berikutnya kita sebut dengan cara otomatis. Tulisan tetap dibuat secara offline. Online-nya baru nanti, setelah tulisan selesai dibuat. Cara otomatis ini menggunakan Microsoft Word. Tapi, bukan sembarang Microsoft Word, melainkan Microsoft Word yang sudah dilengkapi dengan add-on bernama Blogger For Word. Aplikasi tambahan gratisan itu bisa didapat dari http://buzz.blogger.com/bloggerforword.html. Ukuran paket instalasinya kecil, cuma 2MB.

Cara pemakaiannya bisa diringkas seperti ini. Setelah Blogger For Word di-install, toolbar Blogger akan muncul pada Microsot Word. Kemudian, tuliskan isi blog seperti biasa, tetapi jangan online dulu, offline saja. Kalau tulisan sudah selesai, nyalakan koneksi Intenet, lalu publish deh.

Nah, cara detailnya seperti ini. Oh ya, kita pakai Word 2007 untuk artikel ini. Di versi lama mungkin berbeda, tetapi sedikit saja.

1. Klik [Add-Ins] pada menu di sebelah atas. Opsi [Add-Ins] sebaris dengan [Home], [Insert], [Page Layout], dan lain-lain.

2. Klik [Blogger Settings], kemudian pada kotak yang muncul, masukkan username dan password untuk masuk ke Blogger. Klik [OK].

3. Ketikkan isi blog di dalam Word. Kalau sudah selesai, online-lah. Kemudian, klik [Publish].

4. Masukkan judul blog dan pilih blog yang akan berisi tulisan itu. Klik [Send]. Selesai.

Disarikan dari PCplus

Ms. Efi’s Work Experience

Professional Excellence Summary :
• Have a broad experience in teaching with different adults, as well as children, from various backgrounds. Also certified as a teacher trainer at TOT classes.
• Have provided training for a wide range of training centers in the Ministry of Finance.
• Have extensive communication and organizational proficiencies, along with interpersonal skills.
• Trained in developing and implementing programs to encourage student participation.
• Conducted various ESP classes on specialized topics, such as negotiation skills, meetings, and English for Banking, Customs, Accounting, Treasury, State Assets, Hotel and Tourism, etc.
• Design and conduct various English Courses
• Provide assessment reports on individuals as well as groups, for all corporate classes.
• Apply interactive learning method to encourage student involvement.
• Create and assess assignments to provide constructive feedback for all participants.

Work Record :
Commenced   /  Rank   /  Unit   /   Position
a. Pre-Service 01/03/1999 III/a STAN Staff
b. In Service 01/03/2000 III/a STAN Staff
19/10/2004 III/b BDK V Balikpapan Staff
12/05/2006 III/b Pusdiklat KU WI Pertama
01/04/2008 III/c Pusdiklat KU WI Muda
01/04/2010 III/d Pusdiklat KU WI Madya
01/02/2012 III/d Pusdiklat KU WI Madya
01/02/2012 IV/a Pusdiklat KU WI Madya
01/10/2015 IV/b Pusdiklat KU WI Madya
01/11/2018 IV/c Pusdiklat KU WI Madya

Education :
Level    /   Name of Institution     /     Year of Graduation
a. Elementary School SD Taman Muda I Malang 1985
b. Junior High School SMPN 3 Malang 1988
c. Senior High Schol SMAN 1 Malang 1991
d. S1 Universitas Airlangga 1995
e. S2 UHAMKA 2011

Trainings Attended:
– Evaluasi Kinerja Perpustakaan (1999)
– LPJ Golongan III (1999)
– Diklat Kewidyaiswaraan Berjenjang Tk. I (2005)
– ESQ Leadership Training (2006)
– Communication Skills and Public Speaking (2007)
– Pelatihan Penulisan & Analisis Soal (2007)
– Lokakarya Metodologi Penelitian (2008)
– Workshop Penulisan Ilmiah Populer (2009)
– TOT Perpajakan in English (2010)
– DTU Menulis Ilmiah Populer (2010)
– The Speed of Trust with Stephen MR Covey (2010)
– Short Course on Training and Developing Human Resources (Japan)(2010)
– Shortcourse Curriculum and Assessment for Educational Inovation (Netherland)(2011)
– DLB English for Translators (2012)
– Certified Train the Trainers (2012)
– Workshop Business English: FLY/Facilitating Your Language Learning (2013)
– Diklat Kewidyaiwaraan Berjenjang Madya (2013)
– The MBTI Instrument in Communication, Leadership, Conflict, and Change (2013)
– Business English Workshop (2014)
– Diklat Kewidyaiswaraan Berjenjang Utama (2014)
– Paul Ekman’s Evaluating Truth and Credibility (2015)
– GDLN Blendeng Learning Human Capital and Innovation Policies (South Korea)(2015)
– Advanced Miscrosoft Office Training (2016)
– Diklat Asesor Sertifikasi Kompetensi (BNSP)(2017)
– Communications Dojo: The Evolving Face of Public Relations (Singapore)(2018)
– Diplomasi Ekonomi (2018)
– Pelatihan Disain Grafis dan Multimedia (2018)
– Lokakarya Penyusunan Storyboard untuk Mendukung Implementasi Knowledge Capture di Kementerian Keuangan Learning Center (KLC) (2018)
– Lokakarya dan Penilaian Angka Kredit widyaiswara (2018)
– Pelatihan Tata Naskah Dinas (2019)
– Pelatihan Evaluasi Pembelajaran (2019)
– Pelatihan Penyusunan Bahan Ajar Berbasis Multimedia (2019)

– Pelatihan Disain Pembelajaran E-Learning (2019)

– Pelatihan Learning Model 70:20:10 BPPK – Telkom Corporate University (2019)

– Pelatihan Jurnalistik (2020)

 

Publications
Title/Year / Format / Publisher
New Tid Bits for STAN Students/2002 /Learning Module /STAN
Modul Perencanaan Diklat untuk DTSD Pengelolaan Diklat Gol. III/2009 /Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
Modul Speaking untuk DTU General English/2011 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
Modul Writing untuk DTU General English/2011 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
Modul Listening untuk DTU General English/2011 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
Modul Reading untuk DTU General English/2012 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
Modul Pengelolaan dan Perencanaan Diklat untuk Diklat Manajemen Diklat / 2014 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
Modul Desain Kurikulum untuk Diklat Perencanaan Diklat /2014 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
TOT Modul: Strategi Pembelajaran Kreatif /2015 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
TOT Modul: Classroom Management / 2015 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
TOT Modul: Simulasi/Praktik Mengajar / 2015 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
Modul Communication Skills untuk Orientasi CPNS Kemenkeu / 2017 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
Modul Nilai-Nilai Kementerian Keuangan untuk Orientasi CPNS Kemenkeu / 2017 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum
English for Customs / 2018 / Book / Trustco
English Speaking / 2019 / Book / Trustco

Modul Konsep Dasar Tata Naskah Dinas untuk Pelatihan Tata Naskah Dinas Kemenkeu / 2019 / Training Module / Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum

Writing Activities
The Use of CALL and CALL in Teaching DTU TOEFL Preparation at Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum BPPK RI (Majalah Anggaran dan Perbendaharaan, 2010)
Peserta Sulit: Siapa Takut? (Majalah Forum Keuangan Vol. I/02 Juni 2011)
The Importance of a Lesson Plan: A Personal Experience on A classroom Research as a Substitute Teacher (Majalah Media STAN 2010)
Sekilas DTU TOEFL iBT Preparation (Majalah Forum Keuangan Vol. I/04 April 2010)
Oleh-Oleh Belanda: Pembelajaran dengan Active Learning (Majalah Forum Keuangan Vol. I/03/September 2011)
Business Letters Part 1: The Language of Basic Business Letters (Majalah Forum Keuangan Vol. I/03/September 2011)
Business Letters Part 2: The Format of Basic Business Letters (Majalah Forum Keuangan Vol. I/04 April 2012)
Learning The Speed of Trust With Stephen M.R. Covey (Bulletin Pengembangan SDM Edisi 1 thn II/5/2011)
High Quality Correspondence: Business Letters Part 3 (Majalah Forum Keuangan Vol. I/04 April 2010)
A Study on Motivation and Anxiety in Relation to EFL Proficiency at STAN Jakarta (UHAMKA, 2011)
Why I Love Teaching Reading at Ministry Of Finance (Majalah Edukasi Keuangan Edisi 14/2013)
Testing, Assessing, and Teaching (Majalah Edukasi Keuangan Edisi 16/2013)
Being Likeable People (Majalah Edukasi Keuangan Edisi 20/2013)
A Notion about Sharing (Majalah Edukasi Keuangan Edisi 23/2013)
Using English: Fluency or Accuracy? (Majalah Edukasi Keuangan Edisi 24/2013)
Coping with Rising Prices (Majalah Edukasi Keuangan Edisi 16/2013)
Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe STAD dalam Pembelajaran MP Dasar-Dasar Administrasi Kepegawaian pada Diklat Teknis Umum Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia – Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum Jakarta. (Diklat Kewidyaiswaraan Berjenjang Madya 2014)
Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Indonesia Case. (GDLN – KDI Schoolf of Public Policy and Management Final Short Paper 2015)
Studi Kasus Kepemimpinan Transformasional Chung Ju-Yung di Hyundai Business Group. (GDLN Alumni Paper 2015)
The Relationship between Motivation, Anxiety, and English Proficiency at Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum Jakarta (UICELL Paper 2017)
Evaluasi Pascapembelajaran Pelatihan Desain Pembelajaran Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum BPPK TA 2018

Evaluasi Pascapembelajaran Pelatihan Desain Pembelajaran Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum BPPK TA 2019

Leadership and Awards
Satya Lencana Karya Satya X in 2010 (Ten Year Dedication Award)

Satya Lencana Karya Satya XX in 2019 (Twenty Year Dedication Award)

How to Improve Your Listening Skills?

I teach DTU TOEFL Preparation in my office (Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum BPPK), and my specialty is listening. Since 2007, we have been teaching iBT TOEFL for the government officials of the Ministry of Finance (we used CBT format from 2003-2006). Here I will share you some strategies to improve listening skills, especially for the iBT format.

The best way to improve your listening skills is to listen frequently to many different types of material in various subject areas (sciences, social sciences, arts, business, etc). Watching movies and TV and listening to radio is also an excellent way to practice listening. Audio tapes and CDs of talks are available in libraries and bookstores; those with transcripts of the listening material are particularly helpful. The Internet is also a great resource for listening material.

Improving listening skills needs a lot of practice. Here are some websites that you can visit for listening sources:

http://www.ets.org/toefl
http://www.englishpractice.com
http://www.inggrisonline.com
http://www.npr.org
http://www.c-span.org
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio
http://www.bbc.co.uk/world service/learning english
http://www.voanews.com/special english

There are still hundreds more. So, find them yourself and …happy surfing!

“-“

Assignment 3 (CALL Program Assessment)

Task 3

Subject: ICT in Language Education

Lecturer: Hartoyo, M.A., Ph.D.

CALL Program Assessment: CD Evaluation

by Efi Dyah Indrawati

Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka

Jakarta – Indonesia

Introduction

CD Evaluation that I perform here is based on the basis of five principles of self-access computer-mediated language learning program by Hartoyo (2006:90-91). They are:

1. ‘interactivity’ (feedback and instruction)

2. usability (flexibility)

3. content ‘appropriatness’

4. effectiveness

5. performance (attractiveness)

The followings are the ratings that I use for overall evaluation of a CD:

***** = Very Good

**** = Good

*** = Fair

** = Limited

* = Poor

CD 1

Title : Issues in English

Publisher : Protea Textware Melbourne

Year : 1995

Rating : ****

Evaluation:

Since the CD doesn’t use runtime files, I have to explore the content first then click the setup to install it, which is impractical for people who are not computer literate. Yet, I admit that the author of the CD is very creative in programming a way to improve English learning by using content approach on hot issues in life. The CD is very interactive, in the sense it stimulate user’s interaction by providing feedback.The appearance of the program is not bad, yet it could be a bit dull for people who love attractive colors and design.

After we launch the program, we can see the attractive exposition of menu or topics (rich content), such as Animal Rights, Euthanasia, Discrimination, Smoking, Public Transport, the Environment, Gambling, and Growing Old, presented from level 1 to level 4. All are provided with Getting Start, Listening, Vocabulary, Grammar, Speaking, and Writing buttons. The narrators on the video are various people, which make the CD more appealing. From level 1-3, there are Jenny, Michael, Parthena, Isobel, Andrew, Gary, Ryan, Sally Ryan, and Carol; while in level four, the features are experts or guests in each issue like John McPherson, Rob Wootton, Jim Roberts, Manar Tchelebi, Carol Oliver, Will Tomadin and. Kay Koetsier.

Talking about the usability (flexibility), the operation of the CD is very easy, just by doing the instructed action on each button, such as:

Getting Start (questions on comprehension of the video): we just need to drag the available answer to match the question on the box. If we can answer then right, the feed back will be spoken “Right!”

Listening: we just need to click the right word that we hear from the audio. If we can answer one question, the response can be “Excellent!”, “That’s right!”, “Well done!”

Vocabulary (using pictures and words): we just need to drag the words to match the pictures. We will know that we didn’t give the right answer if we couldn’t put the right word to the right box.

Grammar: we must type the right complement of a sentence using keyboard, and if we succeed the response will be “Good!”, “Well done!”, or “Excellent work!”

Speaking: we record word using microphone, and we can click a word to listen to the sample pronunciation

Writing: we must type using keyboard a sentence to fulfill questions on the issue presented by a speaker.

I found the CD is very practical for English self-learning. Yet, the navigation buttons are not provided with text, so we must try to click each one to know the function (such as the balloon callout sign means ‘go back’); this can be frustrating for people who lack of computer skills because they will get confused in choosing the menu. In addition, the quality sound of video are not good, it was choppy spoken sounds. I think that’s because CD burning quality is not very good; I finally viewed the text by clicking text button to help me understand the spoken statements by the actors/guest speakers. Anyway, one good point about this CD is that it also provides a glossary or index for learning, which is rarely provided in English learning CDs.

In my viewpoint, this CD is appropriate for students of junior or senior secondary school (ESL students), since the materials are ranged from level 1 (Basic English) up to 4 (intermediate English). This CD can be very effective to improve students’ mastery of the four language skills for their level: speaking, grammar, listening, and writing.

CD 2

Title : Speak English: Talk More

Publisher : Eurotalk Ltd.

Year : 2000

Rating : ****

Evaluation:

To start using this CD is quite easy if we have already had Quicktime program in our computer; this happens to me the first time I open it using my notebook. The second time I tried using it with my own home PC, I failed and have to restart my computer because this program asks a screen resolution of 1024 x 76.

The appearance (performance) of the program is very attractive: using bright colors and modern design, which makes is more appealing than the previous CD (Issues in English).The narrator who begins the program is very encouraging by saying: “Good luck, have fun, and enjoy it!” There are only two hosts or presenters, a man and a women, but it is alright. Like the previous CD, the navigations buttons are not accompanied by text, so we must try out each button to find out the functions. This is not very flexible in the usability, and it can be a bit frustrating for people who are not very keen on computers. Meanwhile, this CD is interactive enough by stimulating users to score higher, yet it is not provided with feedback (such “Good” or “Congratulations” for high scorer, or “Try Better” for poor scorer) like the precious CD. This CD is actually provided with Help Language, but we must insert Talk More extras CD, and of course I have none of them.

The effectiveness of this CD is on the materials to improve speaking proficiency, they are put in context for speaking, such as greetings, at the restaurant, shopping, getting around, at the hotel, on the phone, emergencies, leisure, and business. This really helps users to enlarge vocabularies in certain context. In addition, the pace of speaking by the hosts is very slow, and the pronunciation is very clear, sometimes they use sign language while speaking. This is quite helpful for people who want to improve their pronunciation skill by imitating the hosts’ speaking.

All in all, this CD is appropriate for learning speaking for ESL learners in the elementary level because the material is very easy to learn and understand. It can also meet the need of students of elementary and secondary school to practice speaking.

CD 3

Title : Talk Now! Learn English: Belajar Bahasa Inggris

Publisher : Eurotalk Interactive London

Year : 2000

Rating : ****

Evaluation:

This CD doesn’t use runtime files so I have to use the Window’s explorer to find the setup to install it first. Some problems for me who have just moderate computer expertise, I couldn’t open with my PC because it asks a screen resolution of 1024 x 768, therefore I use my notebook. Also, my computer is ‘hang’ while using this CD quite often, I don’t really know why.

I find this CD is very interactive; it can stimulate users, even seems to communicate with users by providing feedback on each attempt. For example, if we click a wrong answer, it will tell us by saying “No!”, and if we click the right answer, it will say “Yes!” It also rewards users if they can answer all questions correctly by saying “Selamat!” (the score is excellent). Talking about the usability, the navigations buttons are clear and provided with Indonesian description. For example is when we want to change the language, we can click the symbol of flag, or when we want to quit the program, we just click the symbol of a foot. Users are flexible to choose the menu; they can skip exercise that is too difficult to attempt. The appearance or performance of the program is very attractive: colorful and modern-stylish design, typical of product of the year 2000s.

The effectiveness of this CD is that it helps users to improve their vocabulary, phrases, and pronunciation. One thing that I notice is that this CD is appropriate for people who want to learn General English in the intermediate level and also students on the level of Junior to Senior high school.

CD 4

Title : Easy to Sing

Publisher :

Year :

Rating : **

Evaluation:

At first I couldn’t open this using either my PC or my notebook, and I thought it must be the bad quality of CD burning again, so that the file (or maybe the directory) is corrupted and therefore unreadable. But when I try using VCD players at a CD rental, I finally succeeded to open it, although only for once (the second time I replayed it was not successful).

The CD contains selection of songs, and users can choose what they want to listen to, so this not an interactive CD. There is no interaction between computer and users by providing feedback. The performance is not very attractive, because the layout of the screen is just standard. In dealing with the flexibility, the buttons used are standard and not very interesting, yet easy to navigate. The song lyrics on the CD are easy to catch and follow, which are quite helpful to create an enjoyable environment for learning. In my opinion, this CD is appropriate for English learners of beginner levels, such as kindergarten or elementary school. This is very helpful to develop student’s vocabulary through songs. The good points of the songs used in the CD are that they also teach some moral values of life. In my viewpoint, this CD is okay as an alternative choice for English learning, especially for the elementary level.

CALL and CALT in Program for TOEFL iBT Preparation

 

by Efi Dyah Indrawati

Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka

Jakarta – Indonesia

 

Introduction

 

In recent years, the use of computers and technology is becoming more and more common in teaching and learning process, especially in language instructions. This influence also can be seen in the field of language assessment in which computerized testing is administered altogether. One example of the development in teaching, learning, and assessing language is in the teaching of TOEFL preparation. TOEFL test was designed by Educational Testing Service (ETS) to measure the English language ability of people who do not speak English as their first language and who plan to study at colleges and universities in North America, Europe, or Australia. TOEFL initially used the old format of paper-based test (PBT), then in July 1995, ETS began giving different form of the TOEFL test called computer-based test (CBT) Starting in July1998, ETS introduced the computer-based TOEFL test in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and selected Asian countries. The Next generation TOEFL, the Internet-Based TOEFL (iBT) was launched on September 24, 2005 in the United States, then in the following month, it was administered in Canada, Germany, Italy, and France. The iBT is being introduced throughout the world in phases during 2006.

Teaching TOEFL preparation, especially the iBT one, in my view, must make the best use of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) and CALT (Computer Adaptive Language Testing). Therefore, this paper is aimed at analyzing how to make the most effective TOEFL iBT preparation by accommodating both CALL and CALT. The discussion will be arranged as follows:

1.      What is CALL?

2.      What is CALT?

3.      What is TOEFL iBT?

4.      How to implement CAL and CALT in TOEFL IBT Preparation?

 

Discussion

 

1.      Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) can be defined as using computers as an intermediary in learning a language (Hartoyo 2006: 11). This method is actually an impact of the advancement of information technology and communication, which necessitates learning should be interactive as to provide more advantages to learners. Many experts has stated the importance of interactive capability (Nelson et al 1976; Brandl 1991; Hartoyo 1993:25, 1994; Petermandle 1990 in Hartoyo 2006: 11-13) and flexibility in language teaching (Davis 1993 in Hartoyo 2006:13). CALL is designed to give feedback, texts and graphical information on computers, which are good combination of features to provide learners with clear explanations, descriptions, and illustrations as well as motivation (Hartoyo 2006: 13).

The latest development of CALL is integrative CALL, which links such sources as text, graphics, sound, animation, and video called “hypermedia” and enables learners to navigate through CD-ROMs and the Internet at their own pace and path using a variety of media.

There are some advantages of using CALL, among them are given by Ravichandran (2000):

  1. stimulate learner’s interest and motivation
  2. provide more individual attention to learners
  3. offer a compatible learning for unique styles of individual students
  4. accommodate an optimal use of learning time
  5. give immediate feedback
  6. provide error analysis

 

On the other hand, CALL can indicate some disadvantages, as suggested by some experts (Ansel et al 1992, Gould and Grischowsky 1984, Kiliçkaya 2006). They are:

  1. less-handy than ‘traditional books’
  2. more difficult and tiring in reading, which cause eye strain and irritation
  3. costly for programmers, teachers, and students
  4. not suitable for all learners (different learning styles)                        

 

2.      Computer-Assisted Language Testing (CALT)

CALT is tests that are administered at computer terminals or on personal computers (Brown, 1997). Receptive-response items, including multiple-choice, true-false, and matching items, are fairly easy to adapt in computer-assisted testing medium. Meanwhile, other language tasks, such as compositions, and oral presentations, prove much more difficult to develop for computer-assisted testing (Brown, 1997)

Using CALT offers advantages in two categories: testing consideration and human consideration (Brown 1997). Among the testing consideration advantages of using computerized tests are:

  1. providing more accurate at scoring selected-response tests than human being
  2. providing more accurate reporting scores
  3. giving immediate feedback in the form of a report test scores, complete with a printout of basic testing statistic.

Among human considerations, the following are some advantages of using computer in language testing:

  1. The use of computers allows students to work at their own pace.
  2. CALTs generally take less time to finish than PBT tests, and therefore more efficient (Madsen 1991; Kaya-Carton, Carton, and Dandonoli 1991; Laurier 1996 in Brown 1997)
  3. In CALTs, students should experience less frustration than PBT tests.
  4. Students may find CALTs are less overwhelming because the questions are presented one at a time on the screen rather than in an intimidating test booklet with hundreds of test items.
  5. Many students like computers and even enjoy the testing process (Stevenson and Gross 1991 in Brown 1992)

 

The disadvantages of using computers in language testing can also be subdivided into two categories, physical considerations and performance consideration (Brown, 1997).

Among the physical considerations, the disadvantages are:

  1. Dependence on computer equipment and electricity source, which may not always be available or working in order.
  2. Limited screen capacity that can be problem on relativity long passage of readings.
  3. The graphics capabilities of many computers may be limited (especially for older ones of the cheaper ones)

Among the performance considerations, the disadvantages are:

  1. Different results from the tests administered in a PBT format (Henning 1991). More research needs to be done on various types of language tests and items.
  2. Different degree of student’s familiarity with computers that lead to discrepancies on the CALT tests (Hicks 1989, Henning 1991, Kirsch, Jamieson, Taylor, & Eignor 1997 in Brown 1997).\
  3. Computer anxiety (Henning 1991 in Brown 1997).

 

3.      TOEFL iBT

The Next Generation TOEFL iBT is a test to measure English proficiency and academic skills of non-native speakers of English required b primarily by English language colleges and universities , divided into four sections: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing (Phillips 2005). ETS has set the types of problems for each section as follows:

The Reading section consists of three long passages on academic topics (>800 words each) and question about the passages. The topics are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook, and students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, sentence restatements, sentence insertion, vocabulary, function, and overall ideas.

The Listening section consists of six long passages and questions about the passages (two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions). Students are asked to answer questions on main ideas, details, function, stance, inferences, and overall organization.

The Speaking section consists of two independent tasks and four integrated tasks. In the two independent tasks, student must answer opinion questions about some aspect of academic life. In two integrated reading, listening, and speaking tasks, student must read a passage, listen to a passage, and speak about how the ideas in two passages are related. In two integrated listening and speaking tasks, student must listen to long passages and then summarize and offer opinions on the information in the passage.

The Writing section consisted of one integrated task and one independent task. In the integrated task, students must read an academic passage, and listen to an academic passage, and write about how the ideas in the two passages are related. In the independent task, student must write a personal essay.

 

We can see that the Structure section as used in PBT and CBT TOEFL was removed, but TOEFL iBT itself necessitate a good command of grammar in the Speaking and the Writing section (Sharpe, 2007). Since TOEFL iBT is designed to test the actual skills a student need to be successful in his studies, all four skills in the TOEFL iBT must be improved by taking practices intensively.

 

Implementation of CALL and CALT in the program for TOEFL iBT preparation

Hartoyo (2006) states that there are five principles for designing and testing CALL program: interactivity (feedback and instruction), usability (flexibility), content appropriateness, effectiveness, and performance (attractiveness). Therefore, in teaching TOEFL preparation, the CALL programs should meet the requirements above, so that the aim of learning can be optimally reached. Since the aim of TOEFL preparation teaching is to improve a student’s English skills as well as his test-taking strategies to gain higher TOEFL score, the CALL program is merged with the criteria of a good CALT (Computer-Assisted Language Testing) program. Educational Testing Service (ETS) in 2006 necessitated the important features of IBT test: to measure the ability to communicate successfully in academic setting, to reflect how language is really used, and to keep up with the best practices in language learning and teaching. Therefore, ETS has set standardized certain qualities of the TOEFL iBT:

  1. It tests four language skills that are important for effective communication: speaking, listening, reading, and writing, given in about four hours long.
  2. Some tasks require test-takers to combine more than one skill.
  3. The speaking and writing section responses are rated by certified human raters.
  4. The comprehensive scoring information is provided to explain test taker’s English language ability.

 

Basing on the above features, there are many products of TOEFL iBT preparation released by various publications, such as Baron’s, Kaplan, Thomson, Longman, etc. I use different softwares to teach TOEFL iBT preparation in my training center (Pusdiklat Keuangan Umum BPPK Departemen Keuangan RI) because I want to provide my trainees with programs that suit their need to improve their language learning and their test taking practices. Each software has its own weakness and strength, therefore I employ various CD-ROMs for learners.

            I stated previously that the CALL program should be integrated with the criteria of a good CALT (Computer-Assisted Language Testing) in making a good TOEFL preparation program, so that it can  improve a student’s English skills as well as his test-taking strategies to gain higher TOEFL. Therefore, basing my view from the review of related literature on CALL and CALT, a comprehensive TOEFL iBT preparation program must meet the following characteristics:

 

1. Content

The program contains appropriate material for TOEFL iBT in four skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing):  Diagnostic Pre-Tests for each section of TOEFL iBT,  Language Skills, Test-Taking Strategies, Practice Exercises of one or more skills a TOEFL format, TOEFL Review Exercises, Post-Tests for each section, Mini Tests to stimulate the experience of actual length using shorter version, Complete Tests for the full-length version of actual test, Scoring Information to determine the approximate TOEFL score in each test, and Self-Assessment Checklist to allow students to monitor their progress in specific language skills they attempt.

2. Performance and Flexibility

The presentation and layout of screen must be in attractive colors, and the toolbar in each section must allow students to navigate through the test with ease. Some important buttons are Volume, Timer, Volume, Help, Next/Continue, Previous/Back, OK/Confirm Answer, View Text,  Repeat/Listen, Check/Review/Explanation, Section Exit, Main Menu, and Exit/Quit. The video and visualization must not too distracting that divert students to listen carefully to the audio, and illustration must be sufficient (charts, diagrams, pictures, photos, etc).

Dealing with the content that are segmented into sections or mini tests, it will provide flexible learning (anytime, anything learners want, etc) and greater autonomy for learners.

3. Feedback and motivation

Scores, either raw scores, weighted scores, and scaled scores, should be accompanied by immediate feedback. Feedback must also be proper to encourage and motivate student to learn and practice more. For example, the program should provide learners who receive low score with some positive remarks, such as “Try again”, “Don’t give up”, and so on. If a learner cannot answer all items within certain time limit, the remark can be “Just a little bit faster!”, “Pace yourself!” and so on. These will avoid frustration for learners.

4. Effectiveness and Accuracy

The effectiveness of TOEFL preparation program can be seen from how it can assists language learners to improve their language skills and their score. Therefore, the scoring report must be accurate and immediate. This will also avoid student’s anxiety and frustration for not knowing the progress he achieved by his self-learning and practice.

 

If a TOEFL preparation program can have such characteristics as mentioned above, it will offer a greater chance for improving language skills and TOEFL score for its learners. None of the software I use in my training program has all those qualities. One program is very rich in the exercises, yet it has no scoring and feedback for speaking and writing like human raters can give. The program just provides a self-checklist for learners to predict their performance in the two sections. Here I see that on these two sections, still computers cannot replace the portion of human, especially of language teachers and raters.

Even though such perfect program could exist, still there could be some problems encountered due to some physical or performance consideration, such as limited computer ability or learner’s unfamiliarity with computers.

 

Summary and Conclusion

To sum up, I view that a good program for TOEFL iBT preparation must integrate both CALL and CALT advantages, such as appropriate content for the TOEFL preparation program, interesting performance, immediate and accurate feedback, motivation, and effective scoring and result. If a computer program for TOEFL iBT preparation can have such characteristics, it will offer a greater chance for improving language skills and TOEFL score for its learners. The mere problems will be encountered due to some physical or performance consideration, such as limited computer ability to score like human or learner’s unfamiliarity with computers.

To conclude, an ideal computer program for TOEFL iBT preparation are not only the assignment for TOEFL teachers but also for learners and computer programmers as well. Computer and technology will still continue to flourish, so there is no need to be skeptical about the use of it in language teaching and testing. Although computers cannot replace language teachers and raters, it can be employed to assist teachers to provide the best teaching and test-taking skills for TOEFL iBT students.

 

 

Bibliographical References

 

Educational Testing Service. 2006. The Official Guide to the New TOEFL iBT. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hartoyo, Ma, Ph.D. 2006. Individual Differences in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Semarang: Universitas Negeri Semarang Press.

Kiliçkaya, Felit. 2006. The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning on Turkish Learner’s Achievement on the TOEFL Exam. http://www.iatefl.org.pl/call/j_soft27.htm accessed July 22, 2008.

Lai, Cheng-Chieh and William Allan Kritsonis. 2006. The Advantages of Computer Technology in Second Language Acquisition. National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research Vol.3 No.1.

Phillips, Deborah. 2006. Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test: Next Generation iBT. New York: Pearson Ed.Inc.

Ravichandran, T., M.A., M.Phil., P.G.C.T.E., (Ph.D.)  Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the Perspective of Interactive Approach: Advantages and Apprehensions. http/www.iatefl.org/j_soft27.

Rogers, Bruce. 2007. Thomson The Complete Guide to the TOEFL®Test iBT edition. Singapore: Seng Lee Press.

Sawaki, Yasuwo. 2001.  Comparatibility of Conventional and Computerized Tests of Reading in a Second Language. Language Learning and Technology Vol.5 No.2, May 2001 pp.38-59. http://llt.msu.edu/vol.5num2/pdf/sawaki/pdf

Sharpe, Pamela J, Ph.D. 2007.Barron’s TOEFL iBT: Internet-Based Test with CD-ROM ed.12.. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara.

Skehan, Peter. 1999. English Language Learning in TESOL Vol.40 No.1, 2006. London: University of London

 

 

Hi!

I am a student of Magister Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Uhamka, and now Iam teaching English at the State College of Accountancy and also TOEFL iBTat Pusdiklat Keuangan UmumBPPK Depkeu RI. My favorite activities are cooking, reading, and travelling. Iam very interested in ICT, therefore I always try to keep on learning everything related to it.

If you have information on technological advancement, easy recipes, nice places to visit, or good books to read, please don’t hesitate to share them with me.

My Kids Hate Math

I cannot force my children to love math, but I always tell them that everyday they use math without being aware of it, such as for managing their time, calculating their money, memorizing phone numbers, estimating weight, and so on. However, I inform them, too, that careers in the future are all not math-intensive, such as career in psychology, music, law, politics, etc. That doesn’t mean that there is no math at all in those fields; therefore, I told my kids that they have to master at least basic math for practice in the real world.

I really hate Math!!
I really hate Math!!